General Impact Factor of Journal

Year JMME JCECS
2015 2.0778 1.7122
2016 2.3982 2.0546
2017 2.5442 2.4668

Vol. 08| N0. 04| October, 2018

Title: Content

Page i-iv

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Title: MONEY MOBILIZATION IN INDIAN PRIMARY CAPITAL MARKET AND MARKET INTERMEDIARIES INCLUDING MERCHANT BANKERS: AN ANALYTICAL STUDY

Authors: Professor (Dr.) Siddhartha Sankar Saha

Page 01-14

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 The merchant bankers have a greater role on the capital issue management comprising primary issues (i.e. new issues) and rights issues. In fact, capital is generated in the Indian primary capital market through capital issue management process performed by SEBI registered merchant bankers called book runner lead managers (BRLMs). Corporate finance is raised from the primary capital market through public offers, rights issues and private placement, etc. Public offer is the largest sources of funds from the primary capital market to the company. Basically, an invitation is made by a company to the public to subscribe to its securities offered through prospectus is called as public offers, which can be adopted either under fixed price, book- building method or pure auction method. Public issues are of two types, namely Initial Public Offer (IPO) and Further Public Offer (FPO).  The study makes a growth analysis of money mobilization in Indian primary capital market and market intermediaries including merchant bankers during 2000-2001 to 2017-2018. The study finds that maximum growth rate of amount of total issues is felt in year 2003-2004 (471.79 percentages) and second highest growth rate is evident (254.84 percentages) in 2007-2008. The study also finds that the growth rate of intermediaries is lies between +60 to -40 within the study period.   
 
KEYWORDS: Indian Primary Capital Market, Resource Mobilization, Public Issues, Merchant Bankers.

Introduction  

        Every company requires short term as well as long-term finance for continuing its operations effectively.  Short-term finance is raised by the organization through approaching various banks and financial institutions, lenders and also accepting fixed deposits from public and shareholders.  Long-term finance is met through loans from various entities and also by issue of corporate securities.  The initial and subsequent capital issue of securities like equity shares, preference shares, debentures or bonds can be made in the primary market through public issues as well as rights issues.  Initial issue of securities is offered to the public through issue of prospectus and subsequently the public subscribe to them in the primary market directly.  Usually, internal resource generation is made through issue of bonus shares. In case of rights issue, existing shareholders are given pre-emptive rights to purchase additional securities of the company.  In both the cases of right and bonus issues the company has to offer at the first instance to the existing holders of the securities on a pro-rata basis as required under the provision of the Companies Act, 2013.  Bonus shares, basically, are issued by capitalization of reserve balances and undistributed profits of the company.  So, there is no scope of resource mobilization from primary market to the issuer company by issuing bonus shares (Saha, 2015). There are two types of public issues: Initial Public Offer (IPO) and Further Public Offer (FPO).  IPO, basically, is applicable to those companies which are not listed to the stock exchanges. When a fresh issue of securities of an unlisted company or its existing securities are offered for sale for the first time to the public, called IPO. IPOs are subsequently listed to the stock exchanges and traded in accordance with the SEBI guidelines. 
  

Title: CHALLENGES OF HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING

Authors: Dr. Tajinder Kaur

Page 15-20

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Accounting for human resource has always been a problem in terms of recording this because there are no guidelines for it. Business has gone sea change from production of goods to service sector where the value of human resource is more than any other factor of production. In such environment if they are not given any place in annual accounts it would be difficult to take right decisions regarding them. The research methodology used in this paper is based on primary data. The paper analysis the problem and tries to bring out solution based on response from the questionnaire for the world of accounting.   
 
KEYWORDS: Human Resource Accounting, Primary Data, Human Resource Disclosures. 

Introduction:  As accounting is an applied science and art. It is not in exact form and with its development it keeps on changing. The concept the human resource accounting is developed with the passage of time as the researchers contributed in this field differently. Review of Literature Shri Pragnesh B. Shah (2004) analysed Human resource accounting is in infancy and there is need of unification of presentation of such information. Aditi Dixit (2005) observed some accounting standard is required to bring unification in presentation of accounting standard of human resource accounting. Eric Flamholtz (2005) investigated that positive culture affects the contribution of the employees. Dr. Arindam Gosh and Prof Asit Gope (2009) according to him quantification of information related to human resource helps in taking decisions related to human resource. Yagnesh M Dalvadi (2010) examined that there is difference in accounting of human resources of private and public sector organizations. Raunak Narayan (2010) observed that calculations of various ratios related to human resource helps in studying human resource but this subject has issues and challenges in it. Dr. Sandeep (2012) analyzed that accounting of human resource has relevance but it has hurdles in its adoption within the organization and outside the organization. Michael Mankins, Karen harris et al (2017) observed that present age is the age where value of human capital outweighs the importance of financial resources which further supports the requirement of research in the field of human resource accounting. 

Objectives of Study

  •  To study various problem of human resource accounting.
  •  To explore the possible solution of human resource accounting.

Research Methodology: This research is descriptive in nature.  

Source of Data: Primary data is the main source of information. 

Title: PREFERENCE FOR PRINT MEDIA ATTRIBUTES WHILE BUYING OF CONSUMER DURABLES: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY

Authors: Dr. Mukaram Khan

Page 21-26

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An explanatory research design was utilized where 240 homemakers who read retail food newspaper ads were interviewed. The specific focus was on how consumers perceive retail food firm newspaper advertising, and what effect the advertising has on consumers’ attitudes and shopping behavior. The universe for the study was the Pensacola, Florida urban area (city and suburbs). It was quite apparent that consumers are treating their grocery buying seriously and are using the information provided by the newspaper advertisements to make decisions concerning what products to buy and where to shop. The results of the study showed that requesting information associated with printed advertisements (i.e., magazine and newspaper) increases the likelihood of visiting the state, whereas the same behavioral response associated with broadcast advertisements (i.e., TV and radio) does not necessarily increase the likelihood of visiting Illinois.

KEYWORDS: Print Media, Retail Food, Broadcast Advertisements, Visiting Illinois.

Introduction The way advertising is inevitable for business similarly media is inevitable for advertising. There are different types of media. Each medium have the attributes narrated below. In the same way the print media also have these attributes but different attributes may vary in its intensity of presence for print media.  

Print Media and Functional Attributes 

  • Clarity of Message: The message delivered must be clear. Unless the message is clear, it will fail in its actual purpose of the message itself. Thus any media that is used must be such that the message remains very clear. 
  • Capacity to Depict the Product: Various media of advertisements differ in their capacity to depict the product as it is. The marketer has to understand this attribute present amongst various medium.
  • Display of Maximum Information: Each media is used with motto of displaying information. Each medium is used with the intention of providing maximum information. Which medium will be used depends on the media habits of the targeted market and their readiness to explore the medium for their need for information. The results obtained suggest that besides refreshment, information like product attributes and educative information may also influence the consumers’ purchase and repurchase decisions.
  • Ease of Describing: Each medium has a unique capacity to help the audience remember and describe what they have seen and felt.

Title: CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY

Authors: Dr. Ravi Kant Modi, Dr. Shyam Sunder

Page 27-31

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Agriculture accounts for about One-quarter of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India and employs about two-thirds of its workforce. Agricultural Performance witnessed a dip in the 1990s partly on account of subdued public investment in agriculture and inadequate diversification. The decline public investment was only partially compensated by the rise in private investment. With the WTO regulations coming into force in phases, it is time that our agricultural sector gears up to face the competition from other emerging and developed economies of the world. The Government has initiated few steps and revitalized policies which should give thrust to agricultural production in the country and induce export competitiveness of our agricultural products. India can continue with all its developmental schemes under the WTO Agreement on Agriculture. These include our subsidies for research, pest and disease control marketing and promotion services, infrastructural services, including capital expenditure for electricity, roads and other means of transport, marketing and port facilities, irrigation facilities, drainage systems and darns etc. For developing countries like India, there are some agricultural subsidies, which are also permissible and need not be reduced. These are investment subsidies that are generally available to low income and resource poor farmers. The types of subsidies mentioned above account for the bulk of the agricultural subsidies provided in India. In this paper Contribution of Agricultural Sector in the Economic Development of the Country is discussed critically.   
 
KEYWORDS: Gross Domestic Product (GDP), WTO, Infrastructural Services. 

Introduction After being virtually neglected through decades of rapid trade liberalization, agricultural Policy- market access, domestic support, and export subsidies -- has become the most contentious topic in trade negotiations. In fact, the lack of progress in agriculture reform has led to several missed deadlines in the latest round of negotiations promoted by the World Trade Organization (WTO), putting at risk the Doha Development Agenda (Cline, 2004; WTO, 2004). The controversial, issues often oppose industrial countries, notably the United States and members of the European Union, and developing nations, led by Brazil, India, and China, with the latter group claiming that tariffs, non tariff harriers, and subsidies give an unfair advantage to farmers in industrialized countries.

Scope of the Study Proposed study will make an attempt to investigate the determinants of agricultural trade of India. There would be an attempt to analyze various agro-trade related negotiations in various summits of WTO and further their implications to the agricultural sector of India. The Government of India had been constantly putting efforts for the agricultural reforms and apart from implementing tariff barriers; it had been offering various subsidies to safeguard its farmers especially in the post WTO period. This study therefore, would also look into the steps taken by the Govt. and would analyze their compatibility to match the global competition. Further, the overall impact of’ WTO on Indian agriculture would be evaluated by identifying its contribution in the economic development of India, especially in the post WTO period. 

Title: AUTOMOBILE MARKETING IN INDIA

Authors: Dr. V.D. Santosh Kumar, Dr. V. Vijaya Ranga Rao, Mohammed Mukthiyar Ahmed

Page 32-39

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Automobile Marketing is of its own type, all over the world. In India, it is very much on public display and visibility, which it would be very interesting to make studies of, for marketing theory, strategies and practices. It may hold lessons for marketing theory, practices and strategies, not to say, in any case, of being a good case study of automobile marketing in India, holding an expanding automobile marketing in the world.The industry is composed of four segments, viz.,

  • Passenger cars
  • Commercial Vehicles [ light and heavy ]
  • Two – Wheelers [ Scooters and Motor Bikes ] and
  • Three – wheelers

The sectors (1) and (3) are of personal transport and sector ( 2 ) and ( 4 ) are used for commercial purposes. It is the passenger car sector which is the leading sector of the industry and stands for innovations, constant new models and innovative marketing methodologies or strategies and it is fast growing, clocking about 30 per cent per annum growth, which is a creditable. And, the sector is in ever on expansion mode, whether it is maruti or Nissan, with the intention of building capacities for growing domestic and export and Tamil Nadu state’s capital ie., Chennai is called the Indian Detroit. The present study is focused on passenger cars in India, it is expected that the Passenger Car sales alone will be touching some 20 million by 2020, and India will be among the top 10 automobile markets in the world and a leader in making fuel – efficient small cars and biggies like Volkswagen and Toyota will be waiting in the wings.   
 
KEYWORDS: Automobile Marketing, Strategies, Passenger Cars, Commercial Vehicles. 

Introduction Automobile Marketing is of its own type, all over the world. In India, it is very much on public display and visibility, which it would be very interesting to make studies of, for marketing theory, strategies and practices. In the automobile marketing of India, the importance of the marketing in the scheme of a business enterprise needs no elaborate explanation, it is marketing which decides the final fate of product, namely whether it is a success or a failure. Many a product fail if they are not successfully marketed. In this seeming age of automobiles, aviation, and personalize transport, conspicuous consumption and consumerism, the importance of the auto industry for the growing economy of Indian for domestic purpose calls for no over – emphasis.  Hence, this forerunner study of Automobile marketing of the Indian automobile industry and the premier Tata motors, the big and reputed parent company of little Nano as well as the mighty Jaguar & Land Rover.  India’s is a developing economy with lot of scope of industrialization, specially of modern industrial products of cars such as E-Vehicles and other automobile products.   

Title: FACTORS AFFECTING WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF EMPLOYEES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS: A STUDY

Authors: Dr. P. K. Singh, Kavita Salvi

Page 40-46

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Work-life balance is the ability to manage balance between work and personal life and to stay productive and competitive at work while maintaining a happy, healthy home life with sufficient leisure, despite having work pressure and endless activities which require your time and attention. Still there are some factors which affect work-life balance of employees in organizations. The present research paper aims to identify the various factors which affect work life balance of bank employees. To serve the objective descriptive research design is used and primary data is collected from 110 respondents with the help of questionnaire. Data is analyzed with the help of weighted arithmetic mean and spearman’s rank correlation and it has been concluded that working environment, Performance appraisal system & career growth are major factors which affects work life balance of banking employees.   
 
KEYWORDS: Work Life Balance, Economic Well-Being, Public Bank, Private Bank. 

Introduction Quick transformations in the social, political and economic situations have influenced both the nature of employment and its association with personal life. Managing official and domestic life is a challenge and becoming complex day by day. Work-life balance is the main concern for choosing any profession by today’s generation with shifting roles in every sphere. The banking industry plays a pivotal role in our commercial and personal lives and has always been an ideal destination for employment. Banks have been changing dynamically and getting into new products & services. With the growth of the banking sector and its synchronization with the other financial sectors such as insurance, NBFCs and Capital markets, retirement of the existing employees have produced more number of opportunities in the banking sector. The notion of work-life balance has came into being out of demographic and social changes that have produced more varied and declining workforce and different family/work structures and models.  Encouraging work-life balance is seen as a method of drawing and retaining the workforce needed to support economic well-being.

         Structuring an organisational culture which ropes work-life balance is a long-standing process for big organisations. It consists changing the way people feel and talk about their work and about worklife balance so that by means of flexible working options and other work-life plans becomes accepted and usual for everyone regardless of their gender, position within the organisation or private commitments. It is very important that organizations make sure that they not just encourage but mandate a sensible and effective work/life balance policy, meeting the needs of both the organization and its workforce to stay

Title: CIVIL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION IN INDIA

Authors: Dr. Vimlesh Kumari

Page 47-56

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Civil Aviation industry plays a significant role in the growth and development of Indian economy. It offers saving in time that cannot be match by surface transport over long distances. Air transport helps to optimize technological, managerial and administrative skills in a resource scarce economy. The real progress in civil aviation started in 1920 when the government constructed a few aerodromes. The civil aviation started in 1920 when the government constructed a few aerodromes. The civil aviation department was set up in 1927 and numbers of flying club were founded. The progress was very slow. It was during the Second World War and later that considerable progress was achieved. More airplanes were purchased, new services were started and their frequency increased. In 1946, the government of India laid down its aviation policy to encouragement and development of internal and external transport services through a limited number of sound and reliable private commercial concerns with necessary government help. In 1946, the government set up the Air Transport License Board which gave 11 licenses. This created overcrowding in air transport and inflicted heavy losses in the companies.

           In 1950, the Air Transport Enquiry Committee known as Rajadhyaksha Committee was appointed. The committee recommended the integration of all of all companies into four companies so that remove cut throat competition and secure scientific and zonal distribution of work. But since the private companies did not voluntarily integrate, the government had to nationalize civil aviation on three grounds: Nationalization would raise operational efficiency. (B) It would result as better organization in civil aviation and enable the government to get trained technicians, pilots, etc. (C) It would reduce duplication of services, wastage of flying hours and thus would reduce costs and losses.

           In 1953, the parliament passed the Air Transport Corporation Act under which the Indian Airlines Corporation was to run internal services and Air India International was to run external services. Since nationalization, improvements in all directions have taken place. New aerodromes have been constricted. Both internal and external services have extended. There are a number of agencies which are providing civil aviation services in India. While Air India, Indian Airlines and Vayudoot provide air services, Directorate General of Civil Aviation, Bureau of Civil Aviation Security, Indira Gandhi Rashtriya and Development, Flying Training School – Gondia, Maharashtra, National Institute of Aviation Management and Research and Airports Authority of India are provided infrastructural facilities in India.   
 
KEYWORDS: AAI, DGCA, IGRUA, AI, IA, Civil Aviation. 

Introduction Ministry of Civil Aviation is located in Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan at the Safdarjung airport complex in New Delhi. The ministry is responsible for the formulation of national policies and programmes for the development and regulation of civil aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. Its functions also extend to overseas the provision of airport facilities, air traffic services and carriage of passengers and goods by air, safeguarding civil aviation operations, regulations of air transport services, licensing of aerodromes, air carriers, pilots and aircraft maintenance engineers. The following chart shows the organizational structure of Ministry of Civil Aviation:

Title: WORK-LIFE BALANCE: AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE, “HER” CHALLENGES AND “HIS” COMMITMENT

Authors: Charu Ranawat

Page 57-63

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The paper focuses on work- life balance scenario in the Indian perspective keeping in mind the conflicts and challenges working women face. Organizations in emerging Indian economy play a pivotal role to providing better balance to the lives of working women between work and non-work domains. Support provided by organizations won’t be so effective unless husbands play their part as a support pillar to these working ladies. More studies are required to highlight the caring and empathetic role of these millennial young husbands and fathers. These men make a balance between old socio cultural mindset and progressive gender-neutral attitude. These responsible and caring dads of today would raise equally empathetic dads for tomorrow.
KEYWORDS: Work-Life Balance, Work-Family Conflict, Family-Work Enrichment, Spillover, Crossover. 

Introduction Human is a social animal. In a life spell we play variety of roles. A child, sibling, cousin, friend, spouse, parent, relative, peer, superior, subordinate, citizen and what not (Mohanty &Jena, 2016). Everyone must play each role and relation with full perfection maintaining complete balance in one’s own life and others too. This is work-life balance (WLB). Researchers define it as a skill to enjoy both work and family roles. At work it’s important to be efficient and competitive while at the same time relish quality time with loved ones, family and friends (Cruz, 2017).Some can manage to play while others may face some challenges.

       In changing socioeconomically trends percentage of Indian women contributing in financial wellbeing of families is ever increasing (Rastogi etal., 2017). With increase in working couples, single parents (Bhalla & Kang, 2018) due to divorces, and nuclear families the role of woman has gradually modified from homemaker to career woman (Batra & Reio,2016)who is ready to face dual responsibilities. But it is always easier said than done. India though is going through a socio cultural transition but deep roots of traditional mindset which sees women in kitchen doing household chores (Munn & Chaudhuri, 2015) would take time to get uprooted completely. Women in India, day in day out are trying to prove their mettle as perfect wives, daughters-in-law, mothers and promising professionals. With all these daily adventures how difficult it is to balance so many roles.

       Surveys across the world show concern upon deteriorating WLB worldwide due to long work hours. Organizations too have realized effects of these conflict on the on-the-job performances and started adopting WLB policies (Kumarasamyetal.,2016) that would make both work and life easy, relaxed, and fun for the employees especially for these career women (Halinski etal., 2018). But one can never underestimate the support extended by family especially by better halves. In fact, supportive organizational culture would make family life better and happy family space would certainly make work fun and not a burden (Jain and Nair, 2017).
 

Title: IMPACT OF PEER RELATIONSHIP OVER WORK STRESS: A STUDY ON SALES EMPLOYEES OF INSURANCE

Authors: Dr. Nirav Vyas, Dimple Vyas

Page 64-68

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The present paper deals with a study of exploring any correlation between the state of peer relationship of an employee with the amount of work stress experienced by him or her. The relationship of an employee with his or her colleagues has always played a major role in the factors like job satisfaction and attrition rate. This paper is an attempt to understand whether such relation between peer relationships and work stress exist or not. The study is a pilot study conducted in only Insurance sector and restricted to the city of Rajkot due to lack of funds and manpower. The results derived through the study can be useful to conduct a larger research and can also be fruitful for the HR divisions of organizations to devise a strategy to reduce the amount of work stress experienced by employees.   
 
KEYWORDS: Peer Relationship, Role Identity, Role Conflict, Peer Cohesiveness.

Introduction  Work Stress is probably one of the most common phenomenon seen in the work force employed in the organizations. While certain type of typical stress is needed to create an environment of performance standards, an excess amount of stress can easily turn into a “burnout” and can result into physical and mental wellbeing. 

“Duress” as it is referred to creates imbalance in work and personal life and also, in extreme cases results into depression and demotivation. In current fast phased life, the common stressors which are generally identified are as follow: 

  • Fear of job insecurity
  • Overtime and pressure to meet deadlines
  • Pressure to perform month on month. 

Work stress has long lasting effects on physical, mental and even emotional conditions of an employee. It is heard a lot in current times that work related stress even causes loss in family endeavors and the enthusiasm to pursue career aims. In current Indian corporate situation, almost all sectors have a lot of the above stressors. One sector among all is the Insurance sector. The insurance sector of India is growing at a pace of 10.99% year on year which is the second fastest growth rate in the world as far Insurance sector is concerned. The sector has 24 life insurance organizations who are engaged in fierce competition on the price and services front to gain more market share. It could be a convenient assumption that these conditions leave the employees with high amount of work stress. Peer relationships on the other hand are an emerging concept in HR. A few researches have claimed that healthy peer relationship can reduce a considerable amount of industrial grievances and disputes. The current research is an attempt to understand and seek any relation between health/unhealthy peer relationships and work stress. The research is conducted in a small area as a pilot study and the researcher aims at projecting it on larger canvas. 

Title: M-ADVERTISING IN RAJASTHAN: A STUDY OF CONSUMER ATTITUDES AND PREFERENCES

Authors: Dr. Bhawani Shankar Sharma, Sandeep Kumar

Page 69-73

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Today Indian advertising has the enormous job of speaking in the world's most diverse population. English is the only common language throughout India, however, some of them unknown in many sectors of the population. Television, radio, and newspapers rely on more than two dozen languages, thus limiting the communicative reach of many advertisements to certain geographic regions or some sectors of society. Language problem arose in India there are so many languages and advertisement came in English. In northern India, Hindi is widely used in ads but it is not useful in southern India where it is seldom spoken. This reason is created hurdle in the ads some advertisements combine English and Hindi in a mixture known locally as Hinglish. Today each and every person has mobile phone and use frequently. They need information in fraction of second and want to get all useful things in mobile phone. Is it valuable or not for us? Now trend of internet usage in Rajasthan is increasing day by day. Market trend is going to digitalize and Connectivity of network is also increasing in rural areas. Mobile users get instant messages, online ads and voice-call advertising; some users avoid advertising some use it. Customer will get information of the product brand through m-advertising. Through m-advertising effective and valuable information reaches in the hand. They can touch with our products and get update of new product any time. Purpose of the study is to investigate factors that influence the attitude and preferences of m- advertising by consumers. After digitalization of India we are getting information through various methods such as Radio, TV, internet, SMS. Voice-call etc. companies are competing with fastest information provider to customers.   
 
KEYWORDS: M-Advertising, Technology, Information, Digitalization. 

Introduction  Advertising since inception becomes a very interesting and important part of marketing. It’s experimental in nature and has power to give result with very short time span. This experimental characteristic of advertising makes the subject even more interesting. Advertising is an integral part of the promotion strategies of any organization and plays a significant role in success and growth of the brand. As successful and well implemented advertising strategy can make customer believe in product, brand and company. Advertising have evolved many folds from past decades and become very innovative and creative in nature. Starting from television, radio, newspaper as various vehicles to drive the chariot, 

Title: PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ACC LTD. AND AMBUJA CEMENT LTD.

Authors: Atul Kumar Paul

Page 74-80

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Profitability is a measure of overall organizational efficiency in achieving the set-out goals. It is generally done with reference to capital employed or sales. Profitability analysis is considered for the purpose of planning the optimum level of activity which determines whether or not the firm profiting. The profitability may be calculated through profitability ratio such as gross profit ratio, net profit ratio, operating profit ratio, return on investment ratio, return on capital employed ratio.  The nature of the study is descriptive and analytical research which is conducted on the basis of secondary data. The present study analyzes the profitability of ACC Ltd. and Ambuja Cement Ltd for the past five years i.e. from 20122013 to 2016-17 The study brings out some important information and analyses to reach into conclusion.   
 
KEYWORDS: Profitability, Ratio, Organizational Efficiency, Operating Profit Ratio.

Introduction  The cement industry is very prominent in India. Basically, the industry comes under the large scale industry segment.  India is the second largest cement producing country in the world. The cement industry in our country has a pivotal role in the overall growth of the economy. Apart from contributing GDP, the industry provides employment opportunity for the millions of job seekers. ACC Limited is India’s one of the largest manufacturers of cement and ready mixed concrete. The company has 17 modern cement factories and more than 50 ready mixed concrete plants. ACC has a unique track record of innovative research, product development, and specialized consultancy services. Generally, ACC is the first cement company in the country to start Bulk Cement, especially for large customers.  

         Ambuja Cements is one of the most popular brands in the western India. The company was formerly known as Gujarat Ambuja Cement Limited. Generally, it is a major cement producing company in India. Now, the company is a part of the global conglomerate Lafarge Holcim. Currently, Ambuja Cement has a cement capacity of 29.65 million tons with five integrated cement manufacturing plants and eight cement grinding units across the country. Profitability plays a vital role in survival of a business. Profit is an important element to boost up business activities. But the measurement of the profit and profitability occupies important place in the financial analysis. The profitability analysis is the most important tools for knowing the financial strength and earning capacity of ACC Ltd and Ambuja Cement Ltd. in comparisons. 

Objectives of the Study  The following are the specific objectives of the study area:

  • To study the profitability of selected Cement Industries in India
  • To evaluate the comparative profitability scores as against the selected Cement Industries in India   
  • To give necessary suggestions and conclusions of this study. 

Title: HOW INDIA’S TOP ONLINE MARKET PLAYER FLIPKART WENT ON TO BECOME BUMPY FROM BUMPER

Authors: Jay Kanani, Dr. Sanjay Bhayani

Page 81-84

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Today, Flipkart is an India’s most valuable brand for online shopping. It was founded by Sachin Bansal and Binny Bansal on 2007. Both are alumni of Indian Institute of Technology Delhi. They was started journey with amazon.com as an ordinary employee and then left on 2007 to create their own new venture as Flipkart online services Pvt. Ltd. It began selling books online and soon expanded and began offering a wide variety of products. Now, Flipkart is offering over 30 million products creating to a user base of 100 million registered users. Flipkart headquarter are in the city of Banglore, India. Flipkart is now the second largest e-tailing company after Amazon in India.   
 
KEYWORDS: Online Shopping, e-Tailing Company, Venture Capital Funds. 

Introduction  In 2007, when Sachin bansal and Binny bansal wanted to create their own venture, they choose an online shopping with selling online books in India. The bigger you grow, tougher the challenges you face and harder it becomes to overcome them, this statement was proven by Sachin and Binny. Because in initially both taken many challenges. In its early time, they want to stick Flipkart name board on vendors shop but didn‟t have approval. Both brothers however faced every challenge head on, Sachin and Binny used to stand outside at a book store, name was Gangaram book stores, Bangalore and take books in hand to customers who were coming at Gangaram book stores. At that time they had to ensure selling target and to make several assumptions for success. Sometimes these prediction was wrong but they learned by mistakes to change the direction. They build good business relations with customers and suppliers. Initially, Flipkart had spent Rs. 4,00,000 only for making the website to set up the business. Flipkart raised huge funds from various investors such as, venture capital funds Accelindia, Tiger Global, Morgan Stanley Investment Management etc. It was a make or break decision. Flipkart had a huge market share in the online shopping business at that time and starting new was very risky and this move surprised the investors too, as more and more customers turned to Flipkart for shopping.  

          After a year, in 2008-09 Flipkart reported sales were Rs. 40 million. Then year on year Flipkart growth journey was boost with huge sales figure. “The Big Billion Day”, that special day for Flipkart because on that day (6th October 2014) flipkart sold products worth of Rs. 6.5 million in just 10 hours, flipkart created history in online shopping market. Flipkart gets huge success and reputation in Indian market only because of good customer services. Sachin Bansal believes that „quality of the service provided‟ is what sets Flipkart success. Both was always think on how create differentials form his competitors. Time to time Flipkart was updated attributes of services such as, availability of all sorts of products of various categories, enhanced online shopping experience; add to list, pre and post sales experience etc. Their five values- Customer first, Respect, Bias for action, Ownership and Audacity. Flipkart‟s growth had been phenomenal and it is their continued efforts to bring the best to the market. Excessive ideas might be important for every business, but how to implement those ideas with practically which are more important.

 

Title: WALMART’S FLIPKART ACQUISITION: CAN IT UNLOCK VALUE IN INDIA’S E-COMMERCE MARKET

Authors: Anuj Aggarwal, Dr. Alka Agrawal

Page 85-88

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The recent takeover of India’s e-commerce giant Flipkart’s assets by Walmart in a multi-billion dollar deal has redefined the rules of e-commerce game in India. Some analysts think that this is a brilliant move by US based Walmart which failed to make a mark in cash & carry retail last year to now aggressively enter India’s e-commerce space, while others are cautiously optimistic as there will be set of problems and challenges that Walmart will have to deal with. On the other hand, there is lack of regulatory clarity plaguing the domestic e-commerce industry. The study has gathered secondary data from a variety of sources including annual reports, articles in business press, external agencies, thinktanks, industry associations, analysts’ presentations etc. The key objectives laid down for the research study are as follows:

  • To study the characteristics of India’s e-commerce industry.
  • To analyze the impact of Walmart’s entry on the competitive landscape of the e-commerce business in India.
  • To identify the challenges that lie ahead for Walmart in India’s e-retailing space and possible strategies that could be adopted to overcome them.   
     
    KEYWORDS: E-commerce, E-business, Acquisitions, Walmart, Flipkart. 

Introduction  Zwass (2012) defined the term e-commerce as “the sharing of business information, maintaining business relationships, and the conducting business transactions by means of telecommunications networks”. The technology is fast changing which allows people to buy or sell anything at the click of a mouse. The benefits of convenience and comfort accrued to all the concerned stakeholders. E-Commerce is an important part of E-Business but both terms are often used interchangeably. It provides flexibility to consumers as it offers freedom of choice, ability to transact anything from anywhere at any time, hence saves time, money and effort. It helps in collection of data on buyers and sellers which is crucial for building relationships and crafting business strategies in the long run. Moreover, it provides a platform to small and medium scale businesses to reach out to larger customer base, enter into meaningful alliances with suppliers or other business firms, hence reduce cost and increase profits. Over the years, E-Commerce in India has grown in leaps and bounds across different products and customer segments. The industry is still at a very nascent stage but there has been a paradigm shift in the shopping behavior of an Indian customer as he is moving from traditional shopping to online shopping.

          The Indian E-Commerce market is worth over $25 Billion, according to a report by PWC. The internet penetration and number of smart phone users in India have registered a sustained increase in the last five years, resulting in increase in volumes on the different online shopping websites. Around 60% of India’s e-commerce space is captured by travel and hospitality; another 30% is e-tailing 

Title: POSITION OF NPA IN BANKING SECTOR

Authors: Dr. Sangeeta Gupta, Dilip Gupta

Page 89-94

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Nonperforming assets now a day is not an uncommon phenomenon even for a man of ordinary prudence. The disaster in banking through NPA is being seen by public in last 1 year, probably never seen in last 5 decades. Specially in the context when public (Specially business group) is trying come out the failure policies of RBI or other agencies such as Demonetization and Implementation of GST without proper platform and planning, the occurrence of NPA in various different sectors with huge amount concentrated by few people has changed the mindset of public towards RBI Independence and its working efficiency. The position of NPA is getting worst. Well in this Article we are going to discuss the position of NPA with comparison between Public and Private Banks.   
 
KEYWORDS: Non Performing Assets (NPA), Demonetization, Public and Private Banks, Measures. 

Introduction  In India Banking sector is served by two different kinds of Banks. One is Public and other one is private. Although entire Banking industry is governed by RBI and Central Government to some extent, however Public Sector Banks are largely controlled by Government. Is this the reason of having worst position of NPA in Public Banks? Well before answering to this question, it shall be need of discussion that which kind of banks has large volume of NPA’s. Here it shall be noted down that one of the major function of the Banks is Accept Deposit and Lend the Money. However Lending is made only out of monies provided by Depositor in form of Deposit. In case Advances given by Banks turns to be NPA, it has a direct effect on Depositors. Bank may show its inability to repay the deposits and may turn into Insolvent. Through this article we will discuss how NPA has increased (or decreased) and a comparison between Public and Private Banks as well as comparison between various years of NPA of Banks.

Non Performing Asset (NPA)

           The non performing Asset means when a loan is not repaid by borrower even after its due date. In simple words default in repayment of loan is the cause of becoming NPA. Borrower may do default in repayment due to various reasons such as non availability of funds or unwillingness to repay or fraud.  If the credit facility remains outstanding for considerable time (i.e. after due date), then it turns into NPA. Banks and financial institutions mainly depend upon the interest income they earn from advances. If a borrower defaults in repayment not only principal amount delayed also the interest income discontinues. Account becomes NPA in following Manner

Title: E-GOVERNANCE: AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR GOOD GOVERNANCE IN RAJASTHAN

Authors: Prof. (Dr.) C.K.Shah, Ms. Ranjana Bajaj

Page 95-101

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Information & Communication Technology (ICT) is constantly changing the manner in which information flows to citizens. It is a need of the hour that good governance harnesses the energy of ICT and puts in place tools that allow improved delivery of service and bridge the digital divide. This is vision for Digital Rajasthan. The three pillars of modern governance - transparency, efficiency and ease of access for a better quality of life - are also the prime objectives of the Rajasthan e-Governance road map. However, this can only be ensured if all organs of the government undertake coordinated efforts to IT-enable all processes of governance and service delivery. IT enablement of departments has to ensure linkages between various databases and avoid duplication of efforts. Thus, it is incumbent upon all departments to use standard IT solutions developed in the State. This results in saving of considerable time and resources & leads to ease of operations for all departments.   
 
KEYWORDS: e-Governance, e-Mitra, Raj Comp, G2G, G2C, G2B, e-Sanchar, ICT. 

Introduction “The Government of Rajasthan would leverage Information Technology not only as a tool for improving governance and employment opportunities, but also more significantly as a means to enhance the quality of life and bridging the socio-economic divide in the state ensuring that skew in the development in society is minimized and the underprivileged sections of the society are brought at par with the more privileged sections.”  Vision statement of e-Government in IT policy 2006-08    

Rajasthan is a state in the north western region of India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometers (132,139 sq mi) or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the largest Indian state by area and the seventh largest by population. The main industries are mineral based, agriculture based, and textile based. Rajasthan is the second largest producer of polyester fiber in India. Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the city of Kota, in southern Rajasthan. Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The state is the second largest source of cement in India. It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar, copper mines at Khetri, Jhunjhunu, and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines and Rampura Agucha (opencast) near Bhilwara. Jodhpur leads in Handicraft and Guar Gum industry.1 The State gets 39% of the DMIC, with major districts of Jaipur, Alwar, Kota and Bhilwara benefiting2. 

Title: A STUDY TO MEASURE THE POST-MERGER PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN MANUFACTURING COMPANIES

Authors: Ajay Shankar Bairwa

Page 102-108

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Current research aims to measure the post-merger performance of Indian manufacturing companies. Period of the merger and acquisition (M & As) was taken the financial year 2013-14. In this financial year total 11 mergers and acquisitions taken place in manufacturing sector, where both the target and the acquirer companies were from India. Out of this 11 mergers and acquisitions, researcher has taken a sample of five mergers and acquisitions to conduct the study. Researcher has used the ratio analysis to measure and compare the post-merger performance of selected five companies. Researcher has used five ratios namely; profitability, liquidity and leverage ratio. For measuring the profitability, two ratios have been measured one is return on asset (ROA) and other is return on equity (ROE), while for liquidity quick ratio and current ratio have been considered, for leverage ratio, debt equity ratio was measured. The period of the study to measure the post-merger performance has been taken from 2015 to 2016. It was found from the study that the performance of the companies has not improved after mergers and acquisition. There is a mixed results of analysis, post-merger performance of manufacturing companies of India is not equal, it varies from company to company.   
 
KEYWORDS: Mergers & Acquisitions, Liquidity, Profitability, Leverage & Ratio Analysis. 

Introduction  Any business can be expanded in two ways either through internal expansion or through external expansion. Internal expansion can be in the form of purchase of new assets, new technology, or starting new lines of production, while the external expansion is possible when a firm either diversify its business or acquire or takeover some other existing business. In case of external expansion, a business can purchase grow up overnight by taking over other existing business. There are various methods for the expansion of a business such as; mergers or acquisitions, takeovers, or amalgamations. External expansion is the most important tool to curb the competition and all the large companies in the world are taking advantage of this tool (Buckley, 2014).

             Mergers and acquisitions also termed as a strategy for entering into new markets instead of only expansion strategy. It is only after the globalization and liberalization, the unproductively of capital lying with the big corporate came into light. Mergers and acquisition helps the corporate in optimum utilization of the available financial resources and corporate restructuring. Mergers and acquisition became popular and widely used approach after the liberalization, and globalization process. Merger can be defined as a merge or unity between two or more than two firms into a single firm. Shareholder from all the merged firms will become the shareholders of the acquirer firms. In merger, the acquirer firm remains while the merged firm loses its entity. Acquirer Company acquires all the liabilities and the assets of the merged companies. 

Title: S CURVE TRAJECTORIES OF E MONEY INNOVATIONS IN INDIA

Authors: CA Darshana Khakhar

Page 109-114

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New technology in banking is transferring the financial world and the traditional banking is now a days rapidly changing. One of the latest banking technologies is block chain technology.  It decentralizes the Indian banking system from central bank.  Banks may not be playing any role in the system which will be shared between networks of computers. This paper studies the process of technological changes in the banking system by focusing more on innovations especially in electronic money in India.  In particular, the study aims to gain understanding if block chain technology using virtual currencies like Bitcoin would bring about a paradigmatic shift toward a cashless society. Focus is on the rapid development of ATM, debit cards, credit cards, electronic fund transfer and Bitcoin in India.  For analysis and comparing the development in banking area, technology S curve and Schumpeter's model of economic development are used. It can be concluded from the research that there is a shift towards cashless society in India.
KEYWORDS: Bitcoin, Payment System, Cashless, Innovation, Technology, S-curve. 

Introduction This paper attempts to find whether the Indian banking system is ready for cashless transactions. This study focuses on the financial innovations and in particular the electronic money innovations in order to find whether Indian banking system is ready for the cash less society. The paper primarily tries to locate the current development in Indian payment system from cash, notes and cheques to electronic money or digital money like ATM, debit cards, credit cards, electronic fund transfer at the point-of-sale (EFTPOS), M Wallet, Mobile Banking and Bitcoin—the latest development of electronic money that has been pushed by countries around the world in attempts to be a cashless society and on the other hand it also attempts to find the position of Indian money payment system in S curve of technological innovation.

Conceptual Framework 

  •  Technology Evolution and Diffusion 

This section focuses on the two primary factors that affects the useful life of any given technology – technology evolution and technology diffusion.

Technology Evolution: S-curve model is used to find how technology evolves over time. Scurves are utilized by scholastics and innovation forecasters to foresee how and when an upper limit of a given technology is reached. Technology evolution is changes in performance characteristics of a particular innovation after some time. History demonstrates that once a new technology is introduced, development in performance characteristics has a tendency to be slow, trailed by a time of rapid growth, pursued again by decline as the technology plateaus. The technology evolution can be clarified through the accompanying four phases: emergence, rapid improvement, declining improvement and maturity. These stages are represented in Figure 1, along with S-curve that maps the changes in performance characteristics over time.
 

Title: RURAL TOURISM PERSPECTIVES OF JODHPUR CITY (RAJASTHAN)

Authors: Dr. Ashok Kumar, Ms. Nitika

Page 115-119

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Rajasthan is rich is culture and heritage which attracts tourists from all over the world. Every year thousands of foreign as well as domestic tourists arrived in Rajasthan and most of these tourists choose Jodhpur city as their tourist destination. Many historic places in Jodhpur are site of major attraction for tourists arrived in Jodhpur but there are also many rural excursion sites near Jodhpur as well which now-a-days emerging tourism sites are. In this paper efforts will be made to explore the rural tourism perspectives of Jodhpur city.   
 
KEYWORDS: Rural Tourism, Heritage, Tourists, Economic Development. 

Introduction  In simple words, the word tourism can be understood as an organized, purposeful desire of man to stroll from one place to another. The International Union of Official Travel Organization (IUOTO) defined tourist as “a tourist is a person traveling for a period of 24 hours or more in a country other than that in which he usually resides”. Now-a-days tourism becomes emerging industry in the modern world and today tourism is a key driver for the economic development of many countries. Today, rural tourism is new idea to strengthen economic and social life of peoples of rural areas and especially in India rural tourism relatively new. As rural tourism is strictly concerned with rural areas, so it can be very useful in growth of rural society. India is country of villages and still a large percentage of population is still living in rural areas so there is vast scope of development rural tourism in India. There is urgent need on behalf of government, non-government and other institutions to encourage and promote tourism in rural areas. Rural tourism refers to tourism activities in rural areas which involves traditional societies and practices, in small scale.  

         For development of rural tourism, it is essential to understand the rural environment, economic, socio-culture conditions and demography of that place. Rural tourism generates supplement income for rural peoples and thus can contribute to the wellbeing of the rural peoples which in turn can reduce migration on one hand from rural areas and accelerate development of the rural areas on the other hand. Thus, the concept of rural tourism comes out with objective to benefit the rural community through income generation, increased employment opportunities, conservation and development of rural arts and crafts, and conservation of the environment and heritage. Rural tourism will bring people close to rural cultures, their faiths, local languages and rural life-styles. Rural tourism not only generates employment for rural people, but it also helps to develop cultural and social values. There is huge potential for rural tourism in Rajasthan yet to be explored and it can play significant role in rural economic development which in turn can help in poverty alleviation. Increased awareness, growing interest in rural heritage and culture and improved accessibility, and environmental consciousness are some factors which encourage rural tourism in India. 

Title: RELEVANCE OF THE FACTORS OF JOB SATISFACTION IN RAISING EMPLOYEES’ MOTIVATIONAL LEVEL – A CASE STUDY

Authors: Dr. Monica Verma

Page 120-126

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Motivational factors play an important role in increasing employee job satisfaction. Organizational performance can improve if employees in an organization are satisfied. There is a significant relationship between motivational factors and employee job satisfaction. When we study the factors, we find that factors like recognition of performance, job content and responsibility, advancement and possibility of growth, company’s policy on leave rule and medical benefits, supervision and leadership, interpersonal relationship with the superiors, peers and with subordinates, working condition and salary, job security, autonomy at work, job status and prestige, training and development, job rotation etc. always has either positive or negative impact on the performance of the employees. In the wake of post liberalization scenario, the health care industry is leading from the front. The giant business houses are investing enormous amount of money in this growing sector without compromising on the core values of this noble and human offering of holistic healthcare facilities. A paradigm shift is witnessed by the health care industry. At the backdrop of all these issues, this research study  attempt to find  the impact of extrinsic as well as intrinsic factors of job satisfaction which affect employees with a special impetus on selected multi specialty hospitals rendering their services at Rajkot, Gujarat, India and surrounding areas. Therefore, this empirical study is undertaken “to determine the impact of extrinsic as well as extrinsic factors of job satisfaction which affect the employees of multi specialty hospitals at Rajkot, Gujarat”.   
 
KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction, Motivation, Multi Specialty Hospital, Productivity, Reward. 

Introduction  Motivational factors assume an imperative role in increasing employee job satisfaction. The organization should focus on employee satisfaction to improve the performance of the organization. Motivational factors have significant relationship with employee job satisfaction. When we study the factors, we find that factors like recognition of performance, job content and responsibility, advancement and possibility of growth, company’s policy on leave rule and medical benefits, supervision and leadership, interpersonal relationship with the superiors, peers and with subordinates, working condition and salary, job security, autonomy at work, job status and prestige, training and development, job rotation etc. always has either positive or negative impact on the performance of the employees. In the wake of post liberalization scenario, the health care industry is leading from the front. The giant business houses are showing keen interest in investing huge amount of money in this growing sector without compromising on the core values of this noble and human offering of holistic healthcare facilities. The changing scenario of health care industry is witnessing a paradigm shift.

Literature Review  

       The concept of job satisfaction is corollary to human relations movement that began with the classic Hawthorne studies in late 1920s. It is a multidimensional, enduring, significant and much researched concept in the field of organization behavior (Bassett, 1994). Despite there being lots of work being done in this field there is lack of consensus as to what job satisfaction is (Hall, 1986) and how the job satisfaction of the employees should be assessed.  

Title: HUMAN RESOURCES POLICIES IN FOOD CORPORATION OF INDIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SPORTS PROMOTION

Authors: Dr. Nandini Sharma

Page 127-129

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the human resource policies of Food Corporation of India and their impact on human resource and their development as well as on the contribution of the growth of the country. The study is a review of HR policies and their working for sports promotion. Food Corporation of India has a very effective human resource policy which can be measured by their perceived quality. The paper gives broader evidence of sports promotion in HR policies of Food Corporation of India. The study defines and analyzes the various methods used by FCI, to promote sports. Different schemes of encouragement of sports like stipend scheme and promotion, based on excellent performance in sports activities in FCI are discussed. All these activities ultimately contribute as representation in various national and international games. All recruitment of sports person in corporation is based on talent. Food Corporation of India is working for its primary objective of operation of effective support price, to protect the farmer’s interest, make a smooth flow of food grains in the country and ensure national food security by maintaining satisfactory level of stocks as well as encouraging the sports activities.   
 
KEYWORDS: Support Price Method, Food Grains, Food Policy, Sports Promotion Board.

Introduction  Food Corporation of India was established under the Food Corporation Act 1964 to fulfil the certain objectives of our food policy like safeguard the farmer's interest by effective support price method, to encourage the public distribution system to distribute the food grains all over the country and to ensure national food security to maintain optimum level of stock of food grains. Food Corporation of India worked to satisfy its basic objectives and have an important role in success of India in overcoming the poor management of food grains storage and distribution and provide a stable system for food security. Human Resources Management is an important feature which need to revive and study because today different economies of the world is developing Human Resources Management philosophies in different forms. The main emphasis of this paper is on how to improve industrial relation in the organization and so studied a specific point, sports promotion because Food Corporation of India has a very strong policy to improve the performance of sports persons through various schemes in its Sports Promotion Board (SPB).

Objectives of the Study

  •  To evaluate the contribution of FCI in sports promotion
  • To identify the efforts done by FCI for sports promotion
  • To know the sports promotion policies of FCI 

Title: SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SEWA

Authors: Dr. Jeet Singh

Page 130-136

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Social entrepreneurs makes available the services, products that furnish the basic needs of the masses, the needs of communities/society as well as the needs of future generations i.e. fresh air as well as biodiversity. Social entrepreneurship is a means to attain conceptual objectives like development which can be sustained. Even more so, it is an observable fact that inculcates these vital though abstract concept and designs with a sense of realism. One approach to understand social entrepreneurship is to connect it directly to the concept of sustainable development. The paper presents a theoretical frame for social entrepreneurial opportunities. The researcher presents a case of Self Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) existing in India. The rare evident in the working of SEWA is drawn from rich customs of political and social activism in India. This paper provides an analysis of SEWA as social entrepreneurship that have been extensively acknowledged as flourishing. The research concludes with a fact that practice of social entrepreneurship is essential for the continued and sustainable development. The academicians have a key role to play in cheering social entrepreneurship and advancing knowledge about it. Vital strides have been made, particularly at university level, but we have hardly begun to instill entrepreneurial thinking in students. And while we all agree that entrepreneurship is not somewhat to be learned out of a book, it must be cultivated.   
 
KEYWORDS: SEWA, Social Innovation, Transformation, Social Mission, Benefit to Society. 

Introduction We find in India a strong social and value system as well as cultural issues which hold their significance in our society. Any invention or innovation to thrive in our Indian society needs to be acknowledged by our cultural issues as well as value systems. The aspiration of human being is to build a good society that will be achieved by developing good institutes; these institutes are reflected in good businesses, which will be developed by dynamic entrepreneurs and these entrepreneurs are those, which bring in social innovation. On one hand the welfare innovation is a new creative and realistic idea or project, which leads to good quality of life. On the other hand social innovation can just be the acceptance of any change in the society. The changes may be due to progress in technology, introduction of new religion or change in the social value system. We find social innovators in another form also such as NGOs, which are endlessly involved in establishing new social ventures and their motive is not to accumulate wealth. They are endlessly trying to change the mindset of the masses which results in social innovation and enhancement of good quality of life. Entrepreneurs are innovative, highlymotivated, and critical thinkers and they try to combine these attributes in order to solve problems which are socially present in our society. Social entrepreneurs bring social innovation and renovation in diverse fields which includes education (primary, secondary, higher), health & sanitation, green environment and business development. They work for the eradication of poverty with innovative business models and methods, entrepreneurial zeal, and the guts to surmount traditional practices. Like an ordinary business 

Title: FACTORS AFFECTING WORK LIFE BALANCE AMONG WOMEN TEACHING PROFESSIONAL: A STUDY

Authors: Dr. Aruna Rani.N, Homya.P, Ranjith.KV

Page 137-144

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Work/life balance is investing equal amounts of time and energy between your work and your personal life. Work life balance means to give priority to your work or your family. The main objective of this paper is to identify all the main factors that influence the work life balance among women teaching professional in Present scenario. The research method will help in examining the various factors those results in work life imbalance. Factor Analysis is the statistical tool that has been used for data analysis. In analysis part initially KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) and Bartlett's Test was applied to the collected data. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy test shows the value of .633.The Principal Component Analysis extraction method was used to analyze the data with Varimax Rotation Method. The extracted communalities ranged from 0.603 to 0.833. For clarity of the factor definitions, factor loadings of more than 0.500 were considered. The factor analysis yielded 7 factors in all which explaining 77.068 percent of total variance. Applicative value: the vehicles to help provide attainment of personal and professional goals is work-life benefits and programs. Enabling employees to achieve a balance between their working lives and their lives outside work is a crucial issue today. This paper deals with  factors affecting work life balance among women teaching  professionals for which responses were sought from 100 professionals working in various colleges  in  Bangalore through a structured questionnaire.  JEL Classification: J22, J28, J81, M12.   
 
KEYWORDS: Teacher Work Life Balance, KMO Test, Bartlett’s Test, Factor Analysis, Varimax Rotation. 

Introduction  The term ‘work life balance’ was first coined in 1986 in the reaction to the unhealthy choices that many Americans working in favour of the work place, as they opted to neglect their family, friends and leisure activities in the pursuit of corporate goals. Work / life conflicts grabbed management’s attention in the 1980s largely as a result of the growing number of women with dependent children entering workforce. In response, most of the major organizations took actions to make their workplaces more family – friendly (Oglesby, 2004). They introduced programmes such as childcare, summer day camps, flexi time, job sharing, and leave for school functions, telecommuting and part time employment.  But organizations quickly realized that work / life conflicts were not experienced only by female employees with children. Female workers without children were also facing this problem. In application, work/ life balance is best viewed as a desired state rather than a sustained state of being. In general, it is elusive and difficult to maintain. The concept of work/life balance can serve as a measure of personal and professional focus. 

Title: IMPACT OF DEMONETIZATION ON DIGITAL TRANSACTIONS IN INDIA

Authors: Dr. J.K. Singh, Dr. P.D. Saini

Page 145-148

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India has been witnessing financial transactions through digital mode since the availability of internet facility in urban cities. One could observe gradual increase in the same ever since smart phones reached in the hands of general public because of its cost and need. But, the major thrust towards digitization has been witness subsequent to demonetization of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 currency notes in India. It was all due to technology and digital mode of transferring money which did not allowed the entire business system coming to halt. The present study focuses on the impact of demonetization in enhancing the digital mode of transactions and shift of our society towards cashless regime. The findings of the study have been supported by various statistical test such as Kolmogorov Smirnov test , Levenes test, ttest, etc.   
 
KEYWORDS: Demonetization, NEFT, Mobile transactions, Kolmogorov Smirnov test, Levenes test. 

Introduction  Among the various steps taken by the present Government for bringing reform in economy, one of the main step has been demonetizations of Rs 500 and Rs 1000 currency notes from the midnight of November 8,2016. As most of the businesses, particularly the organized ones, were already making use of digital or online system of payment, the move did left any choice for the business in unorganized sectors and being conducted on smaller scale except to adopt online or digital mode of financial transactions.

Objective and Hypothesis of the Study  The present study aims to examine the impact of demonetization in bringing significant change in the number of digital mode of transactions. Transactions through various kind of digital mode of settling transactions such as National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) and Mobile transactions released by Reserve bank of India have been used to examine the same. These mode of transactions have been focused as they are generally used by individuals in paying off their routine bills and settling their dues. Accordingly, the following null hypotheses have been tested using t-test :

Null Hypothesis (Ho)  There is no significant difference between volume of transactions through mobile transactions during pre and post demonetization period. 

Null Hypothesis (Ho)  There is no significant difference between volume of transactions through NEFT during pre and post demonetization period.

Research Methodology  In order to test the above hypotheses, the data in respect of Mobile transactions and NEFT for the period January, 2016 to October, 2017 has been taken from RBI reports. The entire period of 22 

 

Title: JURISPRUDENCE ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT AT WORKPLACE: AN ENQUIRY INTO FALSE COMPLAINTS

Authors: Dr. Ashok Nimesh

Page 149-153

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Evolution of Jurisprudence over sexual harassment at workplace in India is a recent phenomenon. Numerable challenges were encountered at various stages of its growth. Of many, the huge influx of fake complaints by females at workplace is of serious concern. The recent enactment of law prohibiting sexual harassment at workplaces is underwent critical evaluation. The veracity of law is questionable on the pretext of rising number of female fake complaints at the workplaces. The purpose for which the law was established has undergone dilution. The repercussions are far lethal for society and the individual at large. People who encounter fake complaints have both moral and psychological turmoil. Lengthy judicial processes results in huge delays for getting rectification through the courts. This culminates into another set of responsibilities imposed on the Employers in the name of ‘employer’s liability’ at the workplace. Though, it is established in most of the countries, India still needs to develop its own jurisprudence on it. The two typologies of harassment viz. the hostile work environment and quid pro quo are not compartmentalized as two variants of harassment under the law. Ultimately, it bestows on the judiciary to evolve jurisprudence over sexual harassment. Judiciary need to take cautionary approach while handling cases of sexual harassment. Though, it was always a difficult task to deliver justice in harassment cases, it has now become complex as there is a tremendous rise in false complaints. In the light of this, the paper tries to enquire over the false complaints of sexual harassment at workplace.   
 
KEYWORDS: Jurisprudence, Sexual Harassment, Employers Liability, Hostile Work Environment. 

Introduction The history of sexual harassment is as old as other social histories of crime and atrocities on women. It is evident in various forms and structures within the society. Of many, sexual harassment at workplace is one of the crucial. The importance lies also in its recent recognition as a workplace error and crime against women. It does encompass multitude of problems and dimensions within itself. This is what that makes the entire discourse of sexual harassment a critical one. The laws are evolving every then and now while the herculean task rests on the judiciaries. They are endowed with the task to handle various complexities of the problem. This ultimately leads to the evolution of jurisprudence on sexual harassment. It will help in unfolding complex situations encountered at workplace without being tangled by the law. Interestingly, in India the law on sexual harassment came into force in 2013 while the courts were governed by the Visakha Guidelines. Visakha Guidelines were provided by the Supreme Court in 1997, while recognizing the verdict of Rajasthan High Court in a landmark case of Visakha vs. State of Rajasthan (1997). So, the jurisprudence came prior of law enacted by the State government. The jurisprudence firmly provides meaning and understanding to most of the complex problem associated to sexual harassment at workplace.

Title: STATE DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES – SIXTH ANNUAL INTEGRATED RATING FOR FY2017 WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RAJASTHAN DISCOMS

Authors: Ashok Kumar Jain

Page 154-158

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Power is one of the most important drivers of growth in an economy. The power sector has seen a transformational growth in the recent years on various fronts like generation capacity, strengthening of transmission and distribution networks, village electrification, energy efficiency and supply of electricity. Ministry of Power (MoP) is on a mission mode to put in place a robust power sector to power the high economic growth agenda of the country. The electrification of Leisang village in Manipur on 28th April 18 marked the crossing of a historic milestone in achieving 100% village electrification by the country. The objective of "Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana-(Saubhagya)" scheme is to provide last mile connectivity to all households in rural and urban areas by March 19. The achievement of these two key milestones would totally transform the rural economic landscape; promote inclusive growth and turbocharger the Indian Economy towards a high growth trajectory.   
 
KEYWORDS: Discoms, Integrated Rating, AT&C losses, MoP, PFC, UDAY, Strengths, Concerns. 

Introduction A strong and efficient distribution sector is an essential prerequisite for the development of a robust, self-sustaining power sector. The State Power Sector entities play a major role in power distribution in India and to implement various schemes / majors drawn by MoP several viz. Saubhagya, IPDS, DDUGJY, UDAY, etc. for bringing about improvements in the efficiency of technical, operational, financial and managerial areas of utility functioning. The Integrated Rating Methodology is one of the key initiatives of Government of India to objectively assess the performance of the distribution utilities across various parameters and enable utilities to draw up corrective action plans for improving their performance.

Sixth Annual Integrated exercise report covering 41 state Distribution Utilities spread over 22 States in respect of their performance for FY 17 was released in July, 18. State Power / Energy Deptts . and private Power Sector Distribution Companies are however not covered under integrated rating exercise. ICRA and CARE are the designated rating agencies who have been assigned 21 & 20 utilities respectively. MoP mandated Power Finance Corporation) (PFC) to the rating exercise.  

Prior to this five integrated rating exercises covering FY 12, FY 13, FY 14, FY 15 and FY 16 have been completed. The first integrated rating report was released / declared by MoP in March 13, the second in February 14, the third in August 15, the fourth in June 16 and fifth integrated ratings released on 3rd May 17.This annual integrated rating initiatives that aims at evaluating the operational and financial performance of State Distribution utilities differs from the financial rating exercise as the later measure the extent of ability of an entity to carry out debt servicing liability.  

Title: A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF AHMEDABAD SEZ UNITS WITH REFERENCE TO BALANCED SCORECARD METHOD

Authors: Mr. Kinchit P. Shah, Dr. Ankur D. Amin

Page 159-166

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With a view to overcome the shortcomings experienced on account of the multiplicity of controls and clearances; absence of world-class infrastructure, and an unstable fiscal regime and with a view to attract larger foreign investments in India, in 2000, the Export-Import (EXIM) Policy of India shifted towards a new scheme of Special Economic Zones (SEZ), wherein EPZs were converted into SEZ. Special Economic Zones (SEZ) have been recognized as an important mechanism for trade and investment promotion, creation of infrastructure, employment generation, promotion of regional development, increase in foreign exchange earnings, improving export competitiveness and transfer of skills and technology. Government has passed special economic zone Act (SEZ Act, 2005) and came into effect on 10th February, 2006, providing for drastic simplification of procedures and for single window clearance on matters relating to central as well as State Governments. Through this paper an attempt is made to the performance measurement systems of SEZ units in Gujarat with special reference to Ahmedabad SEZ units and explores the latest trends in this area of research. Reviewing the relevant literature approach was adopted as a methodology for conducting the present research. Previous academic, theoretical and empirical papers from early stages and up to date papers were reviewed and analyzed. This paper finds that although literature shows significant changes and movements towards using the balanced scorecard (integrated) systems, more work still required in terms of developing more dynamic performance measurement systems that consider significant stakeholders who contribute in achieving better competitive advantage and success for an organization.   
 
KEYWORDS: SEZ, Performance Measurement, Balanced Scorecard.

Introduction Indian country has considered as an Asia’s 3rd largest economy as well as 6th largest in the world by nominal GDP and 3rd largest by purchasing power purity.  From the year 1947-1991 after independence Indian economy was mixed economy and under fiscal crisis. With a view to overcome of fiscal crisis in 1991, India had liberalized its economy for international market and adopted free market principles. (An Analysis of Special Economic Zones in India : A Case Study of Haryana, 2011. But, In New Business Era where Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization for Economic Growth; is a big question for Surviving in today’s competition; which is more important to set up and raise a Business for a requirement to modernization, expansion and diversification the technology which is need for Export Promotion to achieve the economy growth in Developing Countries. So, the concept of Free Trade Zones was existed for many years. SEZ / FTZs have evolved and transformed from the original concept of industrial estates, which were usually fenced areas of 10-300 hectares focused on manufacturing for export purposes. The 1st example of such a zone is the Shannon Export- Processing Zone in Ireland, which was set up in 1958.

Title: CSR & SUSTAINABILITY GLOBAL DIMENSION OF GROWTH

Authors: Akancha Kumari, Dr. R.U. Singh

Page 167-171

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Businesses are increasingly finding themselves reflecting on the possibility of embracing corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an opportunity and a challenge around which the governance can be transformed through identification, evaluation and responding to social expectations. There is another concept which is synonymously used with CSR is Sustainability. There is a misconception that CSR, sustainability, sustainable business, corporate citizenship in general used to define the same thing. What it means for an organization to really be sustainable? In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development published “Our Common Future,” which defined sustainable development as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”  Sustainability has a more foresighted approach as compared to CSR as it focuses on what we need to achieve, rather than where we are today.

The corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept focuses on meeting the needs and balancing interests of present generation or society like building schools and hospitals to compensate communities for their resource exploitation. CSR do not always acknowledge the long-term impact on the communities and is more of policy compliance. As CSR is a part of corporate policy of an organization it sometimes imposes long-term liabilities on communities, making well-intentioned actions unsustainable for the society. The concept of CSR is often mixed with philanthropy. Sustainable development focuses more on long-term systemic issues, such as climate change and the inclusive economy and it more of time rather than specific issues. Sustainability is holistic approach comprising environmental, social, and economic aspects addressed by the organization/business, while CSR strategy or program, the “S” in CSR is toooften construed to mean a narrower approach on social issues. Thus, it arise a question i.e. how to identify a truly responsible organization or what is a responsible organization? To answer this, it can be deduced from the above description of CSR and Sustainability that Sustainable business or sustainability wins over CSR.  

                 “Sustainability better captures the objectives of a responsible organization and it can be better integrated in the business policies and its mission and vision to create a just and sustainable world.”

In the present materialistic world, the business/organizations do need to recognize the interdependence between the economy and the natural resources. So the question which the organizations should think upon is that how well can sustainability considerations be integrated with the business policies to improve profits?  

KEYWORDS: CSR, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Sustainable World. 

Introduction The concern about meeting the needs of the present generation without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs characterizes the concept of sustainable development. In 2015, countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable

Title: GST IMPACT ON REAL ESTATE SECTOR

Authors: Anita Choudhary, Dr. R.K. Dular

Page 172-174

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Real estate sector is one of the most pivotal sectors of the Indian economy. Real estate sector plays a vital role in employment generation in India. It ranks second just behind agriculture. The importance of Real estate sector can be understood with its average 5-6% GDP contribution and stimulating demand for more than 250 ancillary industries. GST would bring a lot of transparency in the real estate sector and minimize unscrupulous transactions. Under the current tax laws, VAT and Service tax charged by different Contractors and excise duty, entry tax, octroi is paid on the procurements. Supply chain mechanism in real estate sector to be revamped after implementation of GST.   
 
KEYWORDS: GST, Tax Reform, Construction, Property, Investment Transparency. 

Introduction The goods and service tax weekend if after April 1st July 2017.This is supposed to be the greatest tax reform of Indian economy. This new tax will transfer India into “one market, one nation, and one tax”. GST will replace most of indirect taxes with simpler tax on goods and services. There will be less taxes in the economy. Hence GST is working under “one tax” principal for whole economy so it will bring uniformity in Tax structure good and services will be availed at uniform price throughout the nation on the other hand it will decrease the price of goods and services by avoiding guess cascading effect GST will reduce tax burden on the consumers they will get fair prices. It will affect almost all the sectors of the economy from producers to consumers from big corporations to small vendors from rich to poor.In this context GST will affect industries also real estate is also an important factor of the economy which contribute about 5-6percent in GDP of the nation it is a wide sector having linkage with other industries like cement, iron and steel, sanitary, mining etc. so direct impact of other industries can be seen.GST impact on related industries will also affect real estate sector services of the Indian economy.

Research Problem The concept of Goods and Service Tax (GST) is one of the biggest tax reform of Indian economy. This research intends to focus on GST impacts of goods and service tax on real estate sector of the national economy.

Research Methodology The study focuses on study of primary data of GST provisions made by government. It includes secondary data also collected from journals, books, government publications related to GST. 

Title: IMPACT OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT ON EMPLOYEE’S SATISFACTION IN BANKING SECTOR

Authors: Chirag Thaker, Dr. Dhaval Pandya

Page 175-182

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Employee engagement had gained much popularity in recent years. Though there is increasing contributions of little empirical research on the concept of employee engagement yet, there is a room for more rigorous research. This paper contributes to employee engagement literature as more tractable recent empirical research for future research. Employee Engagement is a measurement of an employee’s emotional commitment to an organization; it takes into account the amount of discretionary effort an employee expends on behalf of the organization and the one who is deeply involved and invested in his work. This research work is an attempt to understand the level of employee engagement in banking sector in Ahmedabad city and their satisfaction toward work place. For this purpose Researchers collected data from banking employees and conducted descriptive research only.   
 
KEYWORDS: Employee Engagement, Employee Satisfaction, Banking Sector. 

Introduction As per the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), India’s banking sector is sufficiently capitalized and well-regulated. The financial and economic conditions in the country are far superior to any other country in the world. Credit, market and liquidity risk studies suggest that Indian banks are generally resilient and have withstood the global downturn well. Indian banking industry has recently witnessed the roll out of innovative banking models like payments and small finance banks. RBI’s new measures may go a long way in helping the restructuring of the domestic banking industry. The Indian banking system consists of 27 public sector banks, 26 private sector banks, 46 foreign banks, 56 regional rural banks, 1,574 urban cooperative banks and 93,913 rural cooperative banks, in addition to cooperative credit institutions. Employee engagement is a workplace approach resulting in the right conditions for all members of an organization to give of their best each day, committed to their organization's goals and values, motivated to contribute to organizational success, with an enhanced sense of their own well-being. 

               David Macleod Defined Employee Engagement as: “This is about how we create the conditions in which employees offer more of their capability and potential”.

Employee engagement is based on trust, integrity, two way commitment and communication between an organization and its members. It is an approach that increases the chances of business success, contributing to organizational and individual performance, productivity and well-being. It can be measured. It varies from poor to great. It can be nurtured and dramatically increased; it can be lost and thrown away. Research by Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD) has repeatedly demonstrated links between the way people are managed, employee attitudes and business performance. It is acknowledged and accepted that employee engagement is a multifaceted construct. Engagement is different from satisfaction as it involves the heart, hand, and mind of the employee, rather than the transactional relationship brought about by satisfaction factors. While a satisfied employee only shows that he is engaged, an engaged employee strives to give his best to make the organization better. 

Title: 'HOW TO USE MARKETING COMMUNICATION TOOLS TO PROMOTE INFAMOUS TOURISM SITES?'– A STUDY

Authors: Ms. Shikha Ranka

Page 183-190

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Every place has its own beauty which makes the person speechless once he starts travelling but it will make him story teller once he finishes travelling. Tourism is the most effective weapon to save world. Travel and tourism industry is world’s second largest industries with an economic contribution. There are many opportunities in Tourism industry and a foremost source of income and employment. It is the lifeblood of the developing countries. There is a need to start marketing on priority to get potential tourist. A promotional activity plays an essential role in the tourism development. Enhance marketing communication tools to convert infamous tourism site into famous tourism site. Internet marketing, effective videos, word of mouth, creative advertisement, marketing agencies and many other marketing tools are present there to promote tourism industry. The goal of this research paper is to find out the way to promote infamous tourism sites. The study is purely based on primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected by structured questionnaire. The basic aim of this research paper was to search how an infamous tourism destination becomes a well known destination because the world is like a book and without travelling, we cannot read all pages of this book. 
 
KEYWORDS: Tourism Industry, Internet Marketing, Tourism Development, Economic Contribution. 

Introduction

  • Hospitality The word ‘HOSPITALITY’ means the excellence treatment of visitor & strangers. The HOSPITALITY industry is a service industry including accommodation (bed, hotels, motels, flotels, inn, resorts, service apartment), Restaurants & Bar (tea shop, bar, cafe, nightclubs, pubs, wine shop), Travel & Tourism (Travel agent, tour operator).
  • Tourism Tourism is a mix of hospitality service concern with the arrangement of accommodation, transportation, restaurant services, entertainment, shopping etc. for the people who travelling away from the home to spend some quality time. Any interface between service provider and tourist called TOURISM. It is the activity for enjoyment or for business purpose. 

Title: ROLE OF STATE GOVERNMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND HOTEL INDUSTRY IN RAJASTHAN: AN OVERVIEW

Authors: Dr. Ramesh Kumar Chouhan, Ms. Nisha Sankhla

Page 191-196

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Tourism and Hotel is one of the largest and fastest growing global industry. This industry is also considered as one of the ancient industry around the world. Tourism and Hotel industry gives revenue, employment, development to the society. It is also helpful to develop a healthy relationship among the countries because of it several benefits and opportunity. Tourism and Hotel industry has a huge multiplier effect by way of creating direct and indirect jobs in Rajasthan. This industry will definitely improves the economic status of people and state too with huge potential to grow because the Rajasthan is a favored tourism destination for foreign and domestic tourist not just during peak period but throughout the year. If State government will do their best efforts with new effective policies and follow-up programme the number of foreign and domestic tourist increase in Rajasthan. The Central Government, State Government, Non-Government Organization (NGO) and Private sector units and other agencies doing their best towards tourism and Hotel  industry. In this paper we would like to analyze and highlight the basic key points with the help of secondary data about the role of State Government in Development of Tourism and Hotel Industry. This paper will also conclude the present policies and schemes governed by state Government.   
 
KEYWORDS: Tourism, Economic Development, Tourist Satisfaction, Hotel Facilities. 

Introduction

          Rajasthan is situated in the north-west part of India and it is a largest state of our country. Rajasthan always attract people from its special culture, forts, historical place, desert, royal living style and many more. It is a land of majestic Aravali hills. Rajasthan have full of rich culture, heritage and most hospitable way serving the services. This kind of behavior makes true efforts to give best service for memorable and enjoyable journey experience to domestic as well as foreign tourist from all around the World. 

Objectives of Study

  • To explore the basic and brief introduction of Tourism and Hotel industry.
  • To evaluate the present scenario of Tourism and Hotel industry in Rajasthan.
  • To examines the present policies and schemes governed by state Government. 

Research Methodology

           The study is based on secondary data. To understand the present policies and schemes run by state Government in Rajasthan. Secondary data will be collected from government reports, journals, brochures and reports of Tourism and Hotel industry, books etc. The data collected will be analyzed to understand the practices and follow up programme in hotel industry. 

Title: CUSTOMERS’ AWARENESS ON CASHLESS TRANSACTION IN SELECTED RURAL AREAS IN JAIPUR DISTRICT: A STUDY

Authors: Dr. Rishi Kant Mittal

Page 197-201

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The Research paper focuses on impact and importance of cashless policy in India. According to Government of India the cashless policy will increase employment, reduce cash related robbery thereby reducing risk of carrying cash. Cashless policy will also reduce cash related corruption and attract more foreign investors to the country. In many countries introduction of cashless economy can be seen as steps in the right direction. It is expected that its impact will be felt in modernization of payment system, Reduction in the cost of banking service, Reduction in high security and safety risk and also curb banking related corruption. Electronic banking will be made banking transaction to be easier by bringing services closer to its customers hence improving banking industry performance. India has been using electronic payment system for many year now, However the retail sector still has predominance of cash transaction and payment through cash is yet to pick up card is the one of the most secure, convenient mode of cashless payment in retail market. The thought that the substantial quality of money impacts view of cash isn't novel, yet it is untested. This paper proposes that under states of money, there is mindfulness (cognizant/ oblivious) that an ownership of significant worth exchanged and this observation may well directly affect individuals' impression of cash and their spending conduct. 
KEYWORDS: Cashless Transactions, Awareness, Mobile Payments, Debit Cards, Credit Cards. 

Introduction Achieving cashless economy is one of the novel and ambitious programme of Government of India and is a part of Government drive to reduce the menace of black money, instances of fake currency, curb corruption, to bring more tax compliance. The success of this drive very much depends on the public, business community, banking system, bureaucrats support. The finance minister in 2016 budget speech talked about the idea of making India cash less economy with the aim of curbing the flow of black money. A cashless society means all the transaction are done using cards all digital means circulation of money or currency or coins is minimal. In study area people too much using cash for transaction comparing to other cities like Delhi etc. in this study area people are using small percentage of cards or digital means because of non-availability of internet connection and lack of financial literacy. Cashless transaction is a developmental process of a country. Most of the urban population has been adopted for making cashless transaction but rural population is having low awareness about it. To know the level of awareness about cashless transaction among rural peoples and how they are overcoming the problems faced by them while making cashless transactions. 

Review of Literature  Deepika Kumari, (2017), in her studies of Cashless Transaction: Methods, Applications and Challenges concluded that the as the demonetization applied by government of India, Government trying to aware its people for cashless transaction by various kinds of advertisement method but still a large number of people are awaiting for the introduction of cashless transaction. This paper is a study of cashless transaction its different methods, advantages and challenges. This paper will help to understand the basic of the cashless transaction.  

Title: HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING: A TOOL OF MEASURING HUMAN WEALTH

Authors: Deepak Verma

Page 202-206

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Today the most valuable info is the human component in an association. Human Resource Accounting (HRA) is the way toward finding and estimating information about HR and imparting this data to partners. As it were, Human Resource Accounting is the way toward recognizing, planning, and detailing the expense of HR brought about in a business, similar to wages, pay rates and preparing costs. Human Resource Accounting is viewed as the movement of understanding the expense contributed for laborers towards their enlisting, preparing, installment of compensations and different advantages paid and consequently making sense of their commitment to organization's benefit. In this paper human resource accounting: a tool of measuring human wealth is discussed in detail. 
KEYWORDS: Human Resource Accounting (HRA), Human Wealth, Human Asset Accounting. 

Introduction Human asset accounting is of current inference and is eristic for gathering. it's plainly previously mentioned that, Human assets accounting is relate degree accounting estimating creature and an outsized assemblage of writing has been uncovered inside the most recent decade setting for the varying methodology for estimating. At the indistinguishable time the thought and hidden thoughts of bookkeeping estimating have gotten sizeable consideration from educators and an extensive assortment of writing has created. The standard accountings of HR aren't perceived as physical or fiscal resources.  

Need of Human Resource Accounting  The requirement for human resource valuation emerged because of developing worry for human relations management in the industry. Behavioral researchers worried about administration of associations brought up the accompanying explanations behind HRA:  

  • Under customary bookkeeping, no data is made accessible about the HR utilized in an association, and without individuals the monetary and physical assets can't be operationally successful.  
  • The costs identified with the human association are charged to current income as opposed to being treated as speculations, to be amortized over some stretch of time, with the outcome that greatness of net pay is altogether contorted. This makes the appraisal of firm and between firm correlations troublesome.  
  • The efficiency and benefit of a firm to a great extent relies upon the commitment of human resources. Two firms having indistinguishable physical resources and working in a similar market may have distinctive returns because of contrasts in human resources. In the event that the estimation of human resources is overlooked, the aggregate valuation of the firm winds up troublesome.  

Title: ROLE OF THE COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL (CAG) FOR CHALLENGES OF GOOD GOVERNANCE

Authors: Dr. S. D. Takalkar

Page 207-210

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The role of governance is an integral component of any country’s growth and development. Government Audit plays an important role in the scheme of parliamentary financial control and ensures that the executive bodies keep expenditure and budget allocation within the sums allotted and for the purposes authorized. It is absolutely necessary that some independent person scrutinizes government spending and checks whether it has been in accordance with Parliamentary sanctions. In the absence of such a scrutiny, parliamentary control over appropriation made by the executive bodies may be frustrated. 
KEYWORDS: CAG, SAI, Public Sector Audit, DRDA, Public Private Partnership. 

Introduction The CAG of India plays a unique role in Indian democracy, by upholding the constitution and laws in the field of financial administration. CAG of India has the power to audit and report on all expenditure from the consolidated fund, contingency fund and public accounts of the Union and State Legislature. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) who is the head of Supreme Audit Institution of India (SAI India) discharge his constitutional functions through the Indian Audit and Accounts Department. 

Objectives of the Research Study The said research study was carried out with following objectives in view:  To study the historical background of CAG.  To study the Principles of Public Sector Auditing.  To study the Types of Public Sector Audits.  To study the Duties and Powers of the CAG. 

Hypothesis The main hypothesis of the said research paper is as follows:

         H1 The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India plays a unique role in Indian democracy, by the constitution and laws in the field of financial administration. 

Research Methodology For the present research study the data pertaining to the above objectives was collected and reviewed the literature on the topic concerned. The literature was thus collected by visiting various libraries. Some Government offices were also visited for getting office record and statistical data. The 

Title: ROBOTIC ACCOUNTING: A NEW MODEL IN ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE

Authors: Dr. Mangu Ram, Dr. Rahul Taparia

Page 211-214

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Accounting is a language of business, so accounting information must be understandable, relevant, reliable and comparable. On the basis of accounting information stakeholders takes decisions on the basis of requirements. Information generated by accounting must have quality of reliability and must be free from material error and bias so that it can be relied upon by users to represent faithfully that which it either represents or could reasonably be expected to represent. Now-a-days Robots taking hold of the world of learning and interesting discoveries about Artificial Intelligence are making sure that in the days to come manual accounting is going to change through cloud accounting and robotic accounting. Robotic accounting requires Robotic Process Automation (RPA) for working procedure. This paper focus on the concept of Robotic Accounting, its applications and benefits it would ripe.   
 
KEYWORDS: Rural Robotic Accounting, Robotic Process Automation (RPA). 

Introduction  Today, days have gone by where slow and steady wins the race, especially in the field of business where the slogan has now changed from, "slow and steady", to "the quicker it is the better it is .” In the  modern business world where there is a cut throat competition a delay of fraction of a second in generating responding disseminating or adapting to an information may bring down curtains of the business organization, so it becomes inevitable for the practitioners of accounting, which is regarded as system of information generation and dissemination to reckon the need of the hour and develop new and advanced means of information generation and dissemination along with accounting concepts, postulates and principles with the use of cutting-edge technology, which would accounting information more worthy to its users as in modern corporate world information delayed is treated as equivalent to opportunity denied  

       With ever changing and evolving field of accounting various new methods and facets are coming and taking centre stage and making financial reporting better, easier, and worthy than ever before Cloud Accounting and Robotic Accounting are one of them. Cloud Accounting is a simple way of performing accounting operations through software that is hosted remotely on the cloud – i.e., Internet, instead of using software hosted locally on a desktop where company’s data and concern software stored hard disk of a desktop, with the objective of accessing of these data retrieve at any time, at any place and at any device which has internet connection, whereas robotic accounting requires Robotic Process Automation (RPA) for working procedure.

Title: GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST): A BASIC CONCEPT

Authors: Jaydip Jayeshbhai Ghelani

Page 215-218

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GST would carry in important revolution in doing business in India. Support for best practices, gearing up for alterations in processes, training teams and emerging IT systems for being GST accommodating are the key areas to be evaluated. In order to prepare for the implementation of GST, companies need to understand GST policy development and its consequences for scenario planning and changeover roadmap groundwork. 
KEYWORDS: GST, IT Systems, Scenario Planning, Entertainment Tax, Excise Duties. 

Introduction The current arrangement of Indirect Taxes is very multifaceted in India. There are so many types of taxes that are imposed by the Central and State Governments on Goods & Services. We must to compensate „Entertainment Tax‟ for watching a movie. We must pay Value Added Tax (VAT) on purchasing goods & services. And there are Excise duties, Import Duties and Service Tax. Today some of these taxes are charged by the Central Government and some are by the State governments. How enjoyable will it be if there is only one combined tax rate as a replacement for of all these taxes? 

What is GST?  

  • The GST is fundamentally an indirect tax that takes most of the taxes levied on most goods and services, on production, sale and utilization of goods and services, under a single territory at the national level. In the contemporary scheme taxes are charged individually on goods and services. The GST is a combined tax based on an identical rate of tax stable for both goods and services and it is payable at the final point of feasting. At each stage of sale or purchase in the resource chain, this tax is composed on value-added goods and services through a tax credit instrument.
  • It has been long undecided matter to update all the different types of indirect taxes and implement a “single taxation” system. This structure is called as GST (GST is the abbreviated form of Goods & Services Tax). The main anticipation from this system is to eliminate all indirect taxes and only GST would be imposed. As the name suggests, the GST will be collected from both on Goods and Services. 

GST at First Time GST was first presented during 2007-08 budget session. On 17th December 2014, the current Union Cabinet ministry accepted the scheme for introduction GST Constitutional Amendment Bill. On 19th of December 2014, the bill was accessible on GST in Loksabha. The Bill will be nominated and taken up for conversation during the coming Budget session. The current central government is very firm to implement GST Constitutional Amendment Bill.GST is a tax that we essential to pay on supply of goods & services. Any person, who is given that or supplying goods and services are accountable to charge GST. 

Title: IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS OF GOODS AND SERVICES TAX (GST) ON VARIOUS SECTORS IN INDIAN ECONOMY

Authors: Dr. Swati Jain

Page 219-222

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GST stands for ‘Goods and Services Tax’ implemented by the Government of India since 1st July, 2017. Goods and Services tax is a newest taxation system in India. It is a indirect taxation has a huge impact on business both big and small and change the way of economy functions. This tax is combined by the central and state government. The parliament legislation of every state will have the power to make law under the article of 246 Act with respect to goods and services to improve by union government or by the state government. The main purpose of GST is to bring about the single tax system for the manufacture and the sale of goods at the both central and the state level in the country. The GST is mainly implemented to remove all other taxes like VAT (Value-Added Tax), Excise duty and Sales Tax. Through this paper one can be in a position to understand about the concepts, objectives, impact and the implications of the Goods and Service Tax on various sectors in Indian economy. 
KEYWORDS: Indirect Taxation, Good and Services Tax (GST), Marketing, VAT, Economy. 

Introduction The Good and Services Tax (GST) is the biggest and substantial indirect tax reform since 1947. GST is expected to create a business friendly environment, as price levels and hence inflation rates would come down overtime as a uniform tax rate is applied. GST is a single indirect tax which was levied on the product or service which is sold in the market. It replaces multiple taxes such as Central Excise Duty, Central Sales Tax, State Sales Tax, Service Tax, special additional duty on customs, etc. Indirect taxes of State government like State VAT, Purchase Tax, Luxury Tax, Tax on Lottery and Gambling was replaced by SGST. This three type's tax structure is helping in transforming the country into one unified common market. More than 150 countries have implemented GST so far.

Review of Literature

          Sehrawat and Dhanda, (2017), studied, “GST in India: A Key Tax Reform” and concluded that due to dissilent environment of India economy, it is demand of time to implement GST.

          Agogo Mawuli, (2018), studied, “Goods and Service Tax-An Appraisal” and found that GST is not good for low-income countries and does not provide broad based growth to poor countries. If still these countries want to implement GST then the rate of GST should be less than 10% for growth.

          Hitesh K. Prajapati, (2018), in his paper on Challenges and Implementation of GST in India talked about the challenges in implementation of GST like IT sector is not boomed, threshold limit of turnover for dealers under GST is another bone of contention between the government and the Empowered Committee etc. 

Title: DETERMINANTS INFLUENCING CUSTOMER PERCEIVED VALUE TOWARD APPLICATION-BASED TAXI & APPLICATION-BASED CAR IN BANGKOK: A STUDY

Authors: Dr. Bhumiphat Gilitwala, Aphakorn Titiwong

Page 223-231

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Of this study, lifestyle of people has been changing through time. People do transactions through m-commerce platform more and more. Transportation is a good example. In this particular study, the customer perceived value was raised up to be studied. It was influenced by my many factors from previous theories and studies. However, the study aimed at study the determinants influencing customer perceived value between application-based taxi and application-based car in Bangkok. The findings resulted that all four variables which were Physical Environment Quality, Service Quality, Corporate Brand or Image, and Self-Service Technology Quality had a significant effect on customer perceived value of application-based taxi. Applied the same logic to application-based taxi, the Physical Environment Quality had no significant influence on the customer perceived value. Apart of that Technology readiness had a significant influence on Self-Service Technology Quality of the two groups. The research was applied to test all 400 Thai respondents of which 200 repondents came through application-based taxi and another 200 respondents were from application-based car, through online questionnaires of 2018. Descriptive and Inferential Statistics were used with the study. Moreover, purposive, cluster, and convenience sampling were employed in this study as well.   
 
KEYWORDS: Customer Perceived Value, Environment Quality, Self-Service Technology Quality. 

Introduction Digitalization has transformed the world seems to be a statement that we have heard a lot from time to time, Almost a decade, its impact the internet-of-thing society. Then there are emerging businesses encountering with the m-commerce platform. Many researchers (Ali, 2016; Feng, Hoegler and Stucky, 2006; Veijalainen, Terziyan and Tirri, 2006) found that businesses have been emerged by new opportunities in m-commerce and embedded in the well-defined business plan by many senior managers. Transportation industry is also affected by this consequence. Beginning with transportation mode, in metropolitan area like Bangkok, there are quite a lot of the mode like bus, rail system (BTS Sky train and MRT, airport rail link), water transport like water bus and so on depending on the characteristics of the transportation mode. However, rush hour and comfort would be the definite terms for people living in the area. One interesting business fit with the behavior of people is about taxi, the solution in a daily rush hour and convenient mode of transportation. Many taxi hailing applications raised up in recent years. The applicable ones in Thailand are like Grab, All Thai Taxi, Taxi OK and LINE Taxi. The most powerful one is Grab Taxi that take a good trend to catch up the market.

Title: INDIA'S CREDIBILITY GREW ON THE ECONOMIC FRONT

Authors: Dr. Monika Khatri

Page 232-234

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Modi government has got comfort from the signs of improvement in the economy of the country. During the four-year term of the Modi government, the average annual growth rate was more than seven percent and inflation remained under control. Relief from the general public rising inflation the prices of food items are also in the grip of consumers. After the first two years of special note, the prices of essential consumer goods were exempted from the reach of the common citizen, they have now come under control and the people have got the rest. In addition to taking fiscal discipline, work was done to bring down the fiscal deficit. In this paper various schemes and decisions of Modi government are to be described. 
KEYWORDS: Average Annual Growth Rate, Inflation, Fiscal Discipline, Fiscal Deficit. 
 
Introduction Modi government has got comfort from the signs of improvement in the economy of the country. During the four-year term of the Modi government, the average annual growth rate was more than seven percent and inflation remained under control. Relief from the general public rising inflation the prices of food items are also in the grip of consumers. After the first two years of special note, the prices of essential consumer goods were exempted from the reach of the common citizen, they have now come under control and the people have got the rest. In addition to taking fiscal discipline, work was done to bring down the fiscal deficit.

The key indicator of the health of the economy is growth rate. Before the Modi government, the growth rate was 6.4 percent in 2013-14, after reaching 8.1 percent in 2015-16, it has reached 6.7 percent in 2017-18. In the last quarter of the financial year 2017-18 (January-March), the country's growth rate has been 7.7 percent, which is the highest among emerging major economies worldwide. Modi government has set a balance in the economy. The reason for the increase in the price of petrol and diesel is the global market, which has no special control. By making various taxes on this, the government increases its revenue. Unexpected increase in oil prices has hurt the common masses and it has adverse effects on our economy, but it is a matter of satisfaction for us that due to the inadequacies of other consumer goods, the government's reputation remains spoiled. During the four-year tenure of the BJP government formed under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, there are many ups and downs in the country's economy. Modi made many big and historic decisions to make the country's economy public and speed up. After the initial shocks, the country's GDP got stability and on the economic front, the country's carriage started moving in line with the hope. Especially the note-taking and the countrymen emerged from GST. In four years, the Modi government took 9 major economic steps, which resulted in credibility of the country increased in the world.

Title: INNOVATION-THE KEY TO ENTREPRENEURIAL SUCCESS: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TOURISM IN KERALA

Authors: Anoukh.N

Page 235-238

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Innovation is of utmost significance to modern lines of business growth and development. Entrepreneurship and innovation are two pervasive concepts and there are gaps in the understanding of the interaction between entrepreneurship and innovation.   For businesses innovation has the potential to boost productivity and increase the ability to follow price differentiation and enhance profits. In today’s globalised world, tourism has become an important source of revenue for many countries including India. Innovative entrepreneurship is necessary for overcoming the challenges in various forms of industries including tourism and its outcomes are the different kinds of tailored products and services. Entrepreneurship by the development of new concepts and initiatives to gain a competitive edge is a key strategy as companies realign their brand, vision and uniqueness. The key message of this paper is initiatives on innovative entrepreneurship in tourism. It also shows vital role of entrepreneurship in tourism to address problems of environmental degradation and climate change in the context of globalization. 
KEYWORDS: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Competitive Edge, Employment, Tourism Entrepreneurs. 
 
Introduction Research in the fields of innovation and entrepreneurship is still in developing stage. Innovation is central to modern lines of business growth and development. Entrepreneurs can contribute to economic development by facilitating the reallocation of resources from less to more productive uses by performing the strategies of ‘cost discovery’, ‘gap filling’ and input completing process. Entrepreneurship and innovation are two of the most pervasive concepts of our time, yet there are gaps in our understanding of the interaction between entrepreneurship and innovation. According to Morrison (1998) ‘entrepreneurship, primarily, involves the process of creating value by bringing together a unique assembly of resources to create or exploit a market opportunity’.  Hence innovative entrepreneurship is necessary for overcoming the challenges in various types of industries and its outcomes are the various forms of innovation.

Entrepreneurial initiatives generally develop new means of production, new products, new markets, new methods of manufacturing or distribution, new sources of material, or new forms of organization according to Schumpeter, 1934.In addition to various economic benefits, entrepreneurship in new forms can also prove hugely beneficial in social upliftments. The tourism industry is a large and varied field and it provides challenging and exciting career opportunities for people. Human resource development is a thrusts area for the tourism industry anywhere in the world as it is a service sector that is largely people driven and the products are experience centric. Trained manpower, the so called ‘human capital’ makes the experience more rich and delightful for tourists. Kerala has made concerted 

Title: MAKE IN INDIA AND ITS IMPACT ON FDI AND INDIAN ECONOMY: A STUDY

Authors: Dr. Manisha Dave

Page 239-244

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The present honorable Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi‟s visionary thrusts on “Make in India”, “Swachch Bharat and Namami Gange”, “Digital India”, “Skill Development” along with minimum cost &maximum Governance have instilled new life and vigor to the role and performance of Indian Economy.  Prime Minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi launched „Make in India‟ programme on 25 September 2014 to attract foreign investments from around the world and make India a manufacturing hub. The aim is to increase the share of manufacturing in country‟s GDP to 25% by 2022 from 16%, as stated in national manufacturing policy, and to create 100 million jobs by 2022. The main emphasis will be given on 25 sectors of the economy for job creation and skill enhancement. In order to revive the Indian economy such scheme has been launched. Make in India will improve the composition of Indian GDP which is the major cause of recession. Currently growth of GDP is due to service sector. Efforts should be made so that GDP rises due to manufacturing sector. This paper discusses the Make in India concept given by Prime Minister of India. It also discusses the Foreign Direct Investment. The aim of this paper is to make an analysis of impact of this campaign on foreign direct investment and economic growth of India.  In the end, the critical assessment of make in India campaign is given and after that some suggestions are given to make this campaign more effective. 
KEYWORDS: Make in India, FDI, Economic Growth, Industrial Production, Manufacturing Hub. 
 
Introduction The 15th Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi launched the “Make in India” program in September 25th 2014 in New Delhi He invited foreign firms to invest in India and also directed the CEO‟s of domestic firms to invest in India by saying that, “ There is no need to leave the nation. We want our companies to shine as MNC”. India is a country having vast natural resources and highest manpower. There are chances of economic development and rise in economic growth. One example is enough to understand this concept- Ferrari- a sports and luxurious car company is at present manufacturing all its units outside India. If anyone is interested in purchasing its car, the customer has to buy it from outside India, if the firm establishes its manufacturing plant in India, besides generating employment and the customer getting the car at very competitive rates and the firm will also be benefitted.  

         The logo of “Make in India” depicts a “Lion” which refers to „King of Forest‟. The aim is to make India the king in manufacturing sector by converting herself to a self dependent and self sufficient country and to give the Indian economy a worldwide recognition.  

Policy for Make in India Program

  • 100 percent FDI allowed in telecom sector.
  • 100 percent FDI in single brand retail.
  • Validity of industrial license extended to 3 years.
  • Process of obtaining environmental clearances made online.
  • For all non-risk, non-hazardous businesses, a system of self certification to be introduced. 

Title: ACES AND PLOYS OF GOODS AND SERVICE TAX IN INDIA

Authors: Vandana Thakur, Manorama Singh

Page 145-148

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The paper aims to explain meaning of GST, and its effect on the Indian economy as well as human life. Under the GST scheme, remarkable distinction is not made between goods and services for levying of tax burden. Same rate of tax is introduced for goods and services both. Post-independence GST is the biggest and most ambitious tax reform plan yet that aimed to stitch common market of fiscal barriers between states. It is a single national uniform tax levied across India on all goods and services. GST includes commodities of state and central list on which various indirect state and central taxes like value added tax (VAT), state duties, central surcharges, luxury taxes, entertainment taxes and a bunch of taxes by local bodies were levied. The objectives of this paper are:  To bring the conceptual clarity on Goods and Service Tax (GST)  To analyze the ACES (game winners i.e. PROS) and PLOYS (game spoilers i.e. CONS) of Goods and Service Tax (GST)  To study the consequence of Goods and Service Tax (GST) in India.  The main purpose of this research study is to comprise of two components: Center and State. It is also imposed on each and every transaction of the goods. This study is done as an explanatory paper.   
 
KEYWORDS: Goods & Service Tax, GST, Impact of GST, Aces, Pros, Ploys, Cons. 

Introduction Taxes put an important effect on human life as well as the economy of any country. Taxes are levied in two major forms either as Direct Tax or as Indirect Tax.  Under Indirect taxation GST scheme has been announced curtailing all other types and categories of taxes, which was earlier done with a major distinction as good or services, but now  remarkable distinction is not made between goods and services for levying of tax burden. Same rate of tax is introduced for goods and services both. Postindependence GST is the biggest and most ambitious tax reform plan yet that aimed to stitch common market of fiscal barriers between states. It is a single national uniform tax levied across India on all goods and services. GST includes commodities of state and central list on which various indirect state and central taxes like value added tax (VAT), state duties, central surcharges, luxury taxes, entertainment taxes and a bunch of taxes by local bodies were levied. GST is one indirect tax for the entire nation, that has made Indian economy one unified common market. GST is a solo tax mechanism on the supply of goods and services, right from the manufacturer to the consumer.  

        Under GST, the burden of tax collection will be divided equitably between manufacturing and services, through a lower tax rate by increasing the tax base and minimizing exemptions. On 1st July, Goods and Service Tax (GST), a form of indirect tax was applied throughout the country replacing multiple indirect taxes levied by the Central and State govt. The different tax rates of GST are 5%, 12%, 18% and 28%. It is the biggest tax reform in the country.

Title: E-COMMERCE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN INDIA

Authors: Monika Kataria

Page 249-251

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E- Commerce is a latest trend in modern business world. Electronic commerce is commonly known as E-Commerce is the buying and selling of products and services over electronic system such as internet and other computer networks.  It refers to a wide range of online business activities. It is leading to a great change in traditional way of doing business.  It is like a revolution in the modern business world. It allows customers a wide range of products. The convenient and quick delivery of products at the desired place also makes it very popular. In this paper an attempt is made to study the opportunities and challenges of E-Commerce in India. Further the paper also discusses different types of E-Commerce, ECommerce sectors and its future in India. 

KEYWORDS: E-Commerce, Internet, Opportunities, Challenges, Electronic Commerce.

Introduction E-Commerce is a boom in the modern business. It refers to a wide range of online business activities for production and services. E-commerce is the buying and selling of products and services over electronic system such as internet and other computer networks. It also pertains to any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchange or direct physical contact. It is the use of electronic communications and digital information process technology in business transaction to create, transform and redefine relationship for value create between or among organization and between organization and individuals. E-commerce is leading a complete change in traditional way of doing business. It has become an integral part of our daily life. This significant change in way of business witnessing a tremendous growth all over in the world and India is not an exception.

Types of E-Commerce The major different types of E-Commerce are:

  • B2B E-Commerce: It refers to business to business e-commerce. It is simply defined as ecommerce between companies. This kind of e-commerce simply deals with relationship between and among businesses.
  • B2C E-Commerce: B2C E-Commerce refers to business to consumer e-commerce. It is defined as e-commerce between companies and consumer.
  • B2G E-Commerce: It refers to business to government e-commerce. It is a business model that refers to businesses selling products, services or information to governments or government agencies. It provides a way for businesses to bid on government projects or products that government might purchase or need for their organizations.
  • C2C E-Commerce: Consumer to consumer or C2C is the business model that facilitates commerce between private individuals or consumers. The most prominent example of C2C is E Bay, an online auction site. Anyone can sign up and begin selling or buying. 

Title: CONSUMERS’ PERCEPTION TOWARDS ONLINE SHOPPING: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

Authors: Dr. Kunal Gaurav, Ms. Jhansi V.

Page 252-260

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From the Last few years, the retail world saw significant changes driven by rapidly evolving consumers’ shopping behaviors, technological advancements and ultimately, the official rise of the online consumer. Online shopping is having very bright future. Perception towards online shopping is getting better in India. With the use of the internet, consumers can shop anywhere, anything and anytime with easy and safe payment options. Consumers can do comparison shopping between products, as well as, online stores. In present scenario customers are busy that they don’t have enough chance and time to go to shopping centers and purchase the things they need, everybody likes to do online shopping. Customer perception keeps on changing with time to time which is to be taken in the consideration. This study is intended to investigate the Consumers’ Perception towards Online Shopping.   
 
KEYWORDS: Consumers’ Perception, Online Shopping, Exploratory Study, Factor Analysis.

Introduction Online shopping is the system whereby buyers purchase products or service from a seller in the real-time, over the Internet. It is a type of electronic business. The origin and growth of Internet have been the biggest event of the century. E-commerce in India was started in 1999 to a period where one can sell and find all sorts of stuff from a high-end product to a meager peanut online. The process of making a decision is extremely similar whether the customer is offline or online. But some major differences are shopping environment and marketing communication. As far as online, when customers see standard advertisements or online promotion, these advertisements may pull in customers' attention and stimulate their interest for specific items. Whenever customers have enough information, they should look at to compare those choices of products or services. During the buying stage, product assortment, sale services and information quality appear to be the most vital point to help a customer to choose what item they should choose, or what seller they should purchase from. Post-purchase behavior will turn out to be more crucial after their online buying. Consumers sometimes have a problem or concern about the product, or they might want to change or return the product that they have bought. Thus, return and exchange services turn out to be essential at this stage.

       Rajan Anandan, VP &  Managing Director of Google India (2013) said “With approximately 8 million Indians shopping online in 2012, online shopping industry in India is growing rapidly and will continue to see exponential growth.”1

       This unexpected rise in the online transactions is due to technological advancement, change in the customer buying behavior and sometimes situational and cultural influences. The consumers’ attitude towards online shopping is the degree at which any person can access, browse, purchase, transact and repeat the same behavior. In this fast growing age, customers are motivated by the technology. 

Title: INNOVATIVE CRM PRACTICES IN LIFE INSURANCE INDUSTRY IN INDIA

Authors: Rajidi Rammohan Reddy

Page 261-264

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Relationship marketing is promising as the core marketing commotion for businesses operating in severely competitive environments. Normally, organizations spend six times more to gain customers than they do to keep them. In this manner, several organizations are currently giving careful consideration to their associations with existing customers to hold them and increment a lot of customer's buys. Deregulation of Insurance industry in the universal has brought about expanded number of layers in the market subsequently rivalry. Service organizations have been pioneers in evolving customer retention strategies. This paper mainly focused on how organizations adopt and implement various innovative CRM practices in their life insurance business.   
 
KEYWORDS: Customer Relationship Management, Customer Retention, CRM Practices.

Introduction  In a globalized insurance situation and with severe rivalry in the insurance sector, an business can carry on only with its customer centric strategies. Every association should edge on Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in order to be customer friendly, improvement of customer satisfaction and the ensuing development of the firm. Traditionally, marketing has been seen from the perception of managing association with customer groups. Relationship marketing, however, takes a lot of observation of the business. It underlines on a more extensive scope of business sectors to give the best incentive as far as both the item and furthermore the customer benefit. At present, the CRM is the most recent thought of overseeing and spreading protection business all the more effectively. It is a device that plans protection items which coordinate with the customer desires.  

           It additionally fabricates customer trust and creates loyalty of the customer. The principle system of CRM is to focus on customer needs, creative advertising channels, uniform quality outlets and distinguishing proof of target showcase and furthermore customer gatherings. The new age organizations guarantee to develop by customer benefits by tuning up innovation, preparing staff and handling existing markets. With better prospects offered in the innovation division, the limits and capacities of the extra security area to hold and enhance customer base is fortified. The convenient and effective strategy towards customer benefit makes this conceivable and satisfactory to the back up plans. The nature of customer relationship is frequently the differentiator. The essential goal of a protection association is to keep up clearness in exchanges and give full insurance to policyholders. The back up plans ought to be most extreme straightforward at the season of the offer of their items. They need to give clear and finish data about the items. The greatest recipient of the opposition among life back up plans has been the customer.

Objective of the Study  The objective of this study is to identify the innovative CRM Practices adopted and implemented by life insurance organizations. 

Title: E-COMMERCE IN INDIA: CURRENT SCENARIO AND FUTURE PROSPECTS

Authors: Kavita

Page 265-270

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The present study has been undertaken to describe the present and future prospects of Indian E-Commerce industry. The study examined the current trends, benefits, growth drivers, challenges and future prospects of E-Commerce in India to achieve the objectives and revealed that the E-commerce in India has become a vital part of everyday life and now-a-days it’s not a privilege but a necessary for the society as it becomes one of the most preferred means of shopping. The e-commerce landscape is constantly increasing in terms of number of internet users and expected to reach 500 million by June 2018, moreover, the retail e-commerce CAGR is projected to reach 23 per cent from 2016 to 2021. This rapid growth rate promises a great future for the Indian e-commerce industry signifying a strong market and increased consumer demand. Further, the study revealed that in-spite of the opportunities, it provided to the wholesalers, retailers, producers and the people; Indian e-commerce industry faces many challenges. The e-infrastructural issues, tax related issues, preference of cash on delivery, poor knowledge and awareness of consumers, etc. are becoming the key challenges for the Indian ecommerce companies. E-commerce in India should take these challenges as an opportunity to overcome the various bottlenecks in the way of e-commerce. In nutshell, it can be said that there is no contradicting the fact that e-commerce has re-entered India and is here to stay. 

KEYWORDS: E-commerce, Internet Users, E-merchandise, E-finance, Online Shopping. 
 
Introduction
E-commerce can be defined as an industry born out of internet revolution. Electronic Commerce is more than just buying and selling products online. It also includes the entire online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing and paying for products and services. India has shown tremendous growth in the E-commerce segment. E-commerce is definitely one of the business options that one will have to explore in the future. Ecommerce is said to bring about paradigm shift in the world for trading E-commerce is a part of information and communication technology in the field of economy with the automation in technology, a rapid change in the methodology for business transactions. From a buzzword to a current-day reality, e-commerce in India has been experiencing remarkable growth, successfully changing the way people transact. E-commerce means trading in goods and services or the transmitting of funds or data through the electronic system like internet. E-commerce consists two main parts: one is, e- merchandise and another one is, e-finance.

  • E-merchandise refers to selling goods and services through online and
  • E-finance includes banking, debit card, credit card, telephone & internet banking etc.

E-commerce provides so many benefits to consumers in the form of wider area of choice, easiness and convenience, availability of goods at lower cost, and save time & money.

Benefits of E-Commerce  With increasing demand for online shopping, more and more businesses are moving towards ecommerce. E-commerce becomes one of the most preferred ways of shopping. E-commerce involves understanding the limitations and minimizing the negative impact while at the same time maximizing the benefits-commerce businesses usually employ some or all of the following practices:

Title: DIGITAL MARKETING AND GLOBAL ECONOMY: IMPORTANCE AND CHALLENGES

Authors: Sandeep Saxena

Page 271-274

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Digital Marketing means a platform of buying and selling of goods and services using internet media. The Global Economy has phenomenal change as a result of resolutions in Digital Marketing. Internet users are increasing day by day in Global Scenario. Digital marketing has grown unprecedentedly over the past 5 years in the world. The scope of digital marketing is very broad that it promotes the products and services as well as help in marketing them through wireless and electronic mail media. Digital Marketing is cost effective and time savvy technique. This research paper tells the impact of digital marketing on global economy. This study explains the importance and challenges of digital marketing. It is estimated that more than 288 million people are using internet for conducting business.

KEYWORDS: Digital Marketing, Global Economy, E-commerce, Economic Growth & Online Promotion.
 
Introduction In recent years, the process of marketing is phenomenally changed as a result of revolution in two areas: customer satisfaction of digital marketing and impact on global economy of digital marketing. The current trends of digital marketing are email marketing, mobile friendly etc. The importance of digital marketing is growing day by day. Digital marketing is time savvy technique of purchasing goods and services. Digital marketing is interest based marketing which helps to achieve marketing objectives. Digital marketing is revolutionizing the various industries like travel and tourism industry. The economy of various countries is affected with the growth of internet based digital marketing. Today, digital marketing has become one of the important areas for business all over the world. Digital marketing is tool of cost efficiency. In this marketing, customization becomes very easy and affordable along with low rates. In India, the boom of digital marketing has been seen by 2015 to 2020. The growth of different fields is occurred like e-commerce, e-advertisement, social media, search engine etc. Developed countries have mostly high literacy rate. According to WEF 2016 report, 33% of our country’s population is functionally illiterate ranked 95. The thirty three percent of young population of India don’t attend secondary education (ranked-103).

Digital marketing revolution includes training people. It opens the doors for jobs of information technology sectors. Indians are spending their time more than other countries like China and US, So researcher wants to study the importance and challenges of Digital Marketing and world economy. The electronic marketing helps to promote the sales of agriculture products, electronic products, garments, home appliances etc. Digital marketing has quality parameters, prices and time saving features etc. Country can boost export with the application of internet based marketing. The digital marketing is helpful to purchase the computer software. Digital marketing promotes the emerging technologies.  

Objectives

  • To find out the impact of digital marketing on world economy.
  • To examine the importance and challenges of digital marketing. 

Title: DIGITALIZATION: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

Authors: Prof. Hamdani Rizwana M.J.

Page 275-279

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Digital India campaign has its root from mid 1990 when central government of that time initiated the e-governance drive. India is huge country accommodate second largest population of this shrinking planet. Digitalization of such a huge nation is not an easy task. Several issues and factors like; literacy rate, Indian culture, awareness, basic infrastructure, willingness of stakeholders, adoption of new technology, economic conditions, governance, etc. get in the way of this journey. There are several advantages of digitalization like e-governance, transparency, reducing red tapism, availability of government services on finger tip at anytime from anywhere. Developed and most of the developing country citizens are enjoying these benefit for last many years. To make India global leader in the modern era, Indian citizen should benefited from digitalization. In this context, the importance of Digital India campaign has increased. So this is the time to review and analyze the Digital India campaign issues, challenges and its journey so far. This research paper attempt to explore the issues and challenges arises in transforming Digital India into a reality.

KEYWORDS: Digital India, Digitalization, E-governance, Demonetization, Vibrant India.

Introduction Digital India is an initiative taken by the new government under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, on the 1 July 2015 with the inauguration of Digital Week in New Delhi. This journey not started from this very moment. It is an initiative taken by the government of India after the economic reforms of 1991. To make public services faster and making government department’s working transparent, Government of India at that time kick off a drive named e-governance. But due to several reasons like worst economic conditions, inadequate infrastructure and fund, various other more important thrust areas of public expenditure left the previous governments empty handed. Furthermore, the last term of United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government was in the state of policy and reform paralysis. Egovernance project of previous government could not achieve the result as expected in all government departments. After the fall of UPA regime at the centre, the new government under the Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi took guard and start transforming the India into new and vibrant India. The new government took initiative to overhaul the e-governance project and with addition of some other objectives launched Digital India programme. The Digital India (DI) campaign is nothing but the transform version of e-governance.  

Objectives

  • To study the overview of Digital India project
  • To study the impact of Digital India in general
  • To analyze challenges
  • To suggest the way forward 

Title: RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW

Authors: Madhusudan Narayan, Dr. Manish Vadera, Prof. (Dr.) M.L. Vadera

Page 280-284

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An entrepreneur is a one who not only plan and organizes the ventures but also often takes risks in while doing so. Entrepreneurs are ambitious to achieve success in their undertaking along with the potentials of a leader, resource allocator, manager, innovator, risk taker, decision maker, etc. and most significant is to enact all of these qualities into the venture. There are some entrepreneurs in India who are now called synonymous of ‘Success’. They envisage the bigger picture but started their business as a very small or small unit. Entrepreneurs set the example of turning their ideas into reality. The story behind to achieve the dreams into reality is to set enormous goals for themselves and stay devoted to achieving them regardless of the obstacles, with the determination towards attaining the ultimate goal. It looks like fascinating, attractive, and motivating after listening stories of the entrepreneurs, but triumph is not easy. India is the country of villages. Majority of the population in India lives in villages. People in rural areas suffer with unemployment, poverty, poor infrastructure facilities, etc. which may be solved with the development of the rural entrepreneurs. Rural entrepreneurs refer to those who carry out the business in rural areas with the utilization of local resources. Rural entrepreneurship is now-a-days a major opportunity for the people who migrates from semi-urban areas or rural areas to Urban areas. Rural entrepreneurship can be considered one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration, unemployment, and to develop rural areas. Rural entrepreneurs may increase the standard of living and purchasing power of the rural people and bottom of pyramid by offering employment opportunity to the people in villages. This paper makes an attempt to find out the various problems and challenges for the potentiality of rural entrepreneurship. It focuses on the major problems faced by rural entrepreneurs.   
 
KEYWORDS: Entrepreneurship, Opportunities, Rural Entrepreneurship, Bottom of the Pyramid.

Introduction  India is the country of villages; majority of the country’s population is living in rural areas. People in rural areas suffer with poverty, poor infrastructure facilities, unemployment, which may be solved with the development of the rural entrepreneurs. As Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development report 2005, rural areas are affected by major challenges like reduced employment opportunities in primary industries and an aging population as a result of migration of young population to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. This also will discourage the migration of rural people to urban areas and reduce the congestion in cities.

Rural Entrepreneurship  The word “Entrepreneurship” is derived from French word “Entreprendre” which means to undertake. As per P.P. Drucker, “Entrepreneur is one who always searches for change responds to it and exploits it as an opportunity”. As per E.E. Hagen, “An entrepreneur is an economic man who tries to maximize his profit by innovations”. Entrepreneurship is the activity of an entrepreneur who starts a new venture by taking risk and initiative, creates useful asset for providing value to the customers. 

Title: IMPACT OF MARKETING MIX ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS IN RAJASTHAN

Authors: Dr. Pramod Srivastava, Hari Narayan Bhadkariya

Page 285-290

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The purpose of marketing mix is customer satisfaction in return for profit and satisfying customer needs and meet the needs of his efficiency is identify needs, desires, tastes, attitude, expectations and desires of customers in buying. In this study has been studied the relationship between marketing mix and consumer behavior in dairy products. Statistical Society of research is all consumers of dairy products in Rajasthan also chain in rural and semi urban/urban area of Rajasthan. All the independent variables are positively and directly related to customer satisfaction. The relationship between marketing mix and customer satisfaction is significant. Therefore, the company should revisit the controllable marketing mix elements to satisfy the customer. The Statistical sample for this study is consumers of dairy products in Rajasthan the chain Shop of Saras dairy. The Data collection methods is field methods and data collection tool is a questionnaire designed by the researcher. Finally, descriptive and inferential statistical methods used to reject or confirm hypotheses include chi-square, Pearson, and correlation coefficient and Friedman.   
 
KEYWORDS: Marketing Mix, Marketing Mix, Product, Promotion, Place, Consumer satisfaction. 

Introduction The dairy industry is one of the most important components of the world food system, and is undergoing dramatic change at the current time. Currently processes of change are being driven by a wide range of forces including shifts to the regulatory environment for dairy production and trade, technological changes to the production of milk and milk-products. The Milk is regarded as the most important source of nutrient, vitamin and mineral provider for people across the world. It is regarded as a sea of calcium which helps people develop stronger bones and muscles. The universal significance of milk has never been under estimated and efforts have continuously been made to augment the production of pure milk for consumption in various forms. Milk contains most of the essential nutrients for the maintenance of the physical wellbeing.  

         Importance of Milk as Food The Milk is a dietary item. It is a complete balanced food. The high biological value of milk protein is an advantage not only for infants but also for adults. Milk from domestic animals and milk produced by human are an excellent food for human beings. The energy value of both humans and animal milk is similar. But it varies in its mineral and vitamin contents. It is not only an excellent food but also complements all other diets.

Title: IMPLICATIONS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Authors: Dr. C.L. Sharma, Tabassum Ahmed

Page 291-294

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The study explores the CSR and HRM, defines the role engagement of the HR professionals in CSR initiatives. The Literature reviewed reveals that CSR is a triple bottom line like performance and fundamentally a top-management motivated action, devoid of employees' participation. The final characteristic of CSR is traditional and tends to obstruct accomplishment procedure. The article defines the role engagement of the HR professionals vis a CSR activities to comprise along with others, important and educating employees on the value of CSR, developing accountable and sustainable practices, communicating CSR activities to employees and further stakeholders, and provided that direction, control and action plans for implementing the program in the organization As a final point, the study affirms the two concepts and charges management to see the strategic business decisions to unlock the human capital of an organizations.   
 
KEYWORDS: CSR, HRM, Role Engagement, HR Professionals, Organizations, Implications.

Introduction The HRM essentially emphasizes and incorporates those expectations which are not being fulfilled through the traditional personnel management. It integrates in a meaningful way the various subsystems like performance appraisal, potentiality appraisal and development, career planning, training and development, organization development, research and systems development, rewards, employee welfare and quality of work life, industrial relations, and human resource information.  

Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Academics have had an interest in the concept of CSR for close to fifty years (Carroll 2009) but the definition of CSR differs from one corporation/ scholar/ practitioner to another. Beside this, the concept and the definition of CSR evolve as a living organism. Friedman’s (2007) 'The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits' quote is one of the most discussed approaches about the debate. According to Friedman; CSR aims to increase the profit while respecting the rules of the business (Salmones, Crespo& Bosque 2015).It’s known that the concept was mostly related with economic aspects, understood as the company’s obligation to maximize shareholder value (Zenisek 2009).  The CSR is the activities that corporations undertake to fulfill the society’s expectations and business ethics is the analytical tool to understand, conceptualize and legitimize the moral status of corporate policies, strategies and programmes. 

Title: CHALLENGES & PROBLEMS OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPMENT IN RAJASTHAN

Authors: Dr. Vinod Batra, Neetu Sharma

Page 295-300

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The paper aims to analyze the critical factors of rural entrepreneurship development in rural Rajasthan. It makes an attempt to find out the strengths and opportunities for the potential rural entrepreneurs. The Rural entrepreneurship is now a day's providing opportunities to the people who are moving to cities for job or for any other reason for their livelihood, in terms of lack of primary amenities like education, financial problems, and insufficient technical and conceptual ability. For the economic development of Rajasthan and of regions within the country rural entrepreneur is surely one of the most important inputs. Today entrepreneurs are also driven to achieve success in their business along with the qualities inherited by them of a dreamer, leader, manager, innovator, continuous learner, and decision maker and most important is to implement all these qualities into the work There are certainly some obstacles which we call challenges to overcome by looking forward the prospects to be a successful entrepreneur. Therefore it is paving problems for the rural entrepreneurs to establish industries in the rural areas and to be sustainable for long term.  The paper also makes an attempt to find out the challenges and problems for the potentiality of rural entrepreneurship. It also focuses on the major problems faced by rural entrepreneurs especially in the fields of Marketing of products, financial services and basic and other primary amenities, i.e. availability of electricity, water supply, transport facilities and required energy etc.   
 
KEYWORDS: Rural Entrepreneurs, Strengths, Innovator, Economic Development, Conceptual Ability.

Introduction There are so many institutes and organizations which are concerned in entrepreneurship development activities and there are people who join these programmes as a stepping stone to become entrepreneur. It is a known fact that so many management institutes are coming up to cater to the growing need of industries by supplying traditional managers/corporate managers. The scope of this study is to find out the sensitivity of management students about the entrepreneurship and compare it with those people who have become entrepreneur. The researcher feels that this study will reveal the facts which are important to develop entrepreneurship as a career option among management students. A manager is one who manages all the resources to match with the organizational needs. In the managerial role resources are allocated to solve problems and improve the administrative efficiency. The entrepreneurship is very an old concept according to which anyone who runs business is called an entrepreneur. The more precise meaning of entrepreneur is; one who perceives a need and then brings together manpower, material and capital required to meet that need.  Entrepreneur is one who understands the market dynamics and searches for change respond to it and exploit it as an opportunity. In underdeveloped state like Rajasthan, a new species of entrepreneurs is desirable, because here the economic progress has to be brought about along with social justice. Entrepreneurship in Rajasthan therefore, has to sub serve the national objective. 

Title: STUDY OF MARKETING MIX ON CONSUMER BUYING DECISION OF DAIRY PRODUCTS

Authors: Prof. B. Krishna Reddy, Yogesh Kumar

Page 301-307

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The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of brand image and promotional mix on consumer buying decision. The Descriptive survey of research design was adopted as the study guide. The Judgmental and purposive sampling techniques were used in research instrument were administered to dairy product consumers in Rajasthan. The questionnaire were filled and returned. Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to analyze the data generated from the respondents. The findings revealed that brand image, advertising, sales promotion and personal selling have significant influence on consumer buying decision. The study concluded that the way a product is promoted coupled with the brand integrity of such product encourages consumers to purchase it and make repeat purchase of it, and as well enhances the referral of such product to other prospects. The study therefore recommended to the organizations, especially those that engage in the marketing of the fast-moving consumer goods, dairy products to focus on distinct promotional mix, as the study empirically proved that perception of brand image is capable of influencing consumer buying decision on sustainable basis. It is also recommended that each marketing company should adopt a combination of marketing mix, promotional mix that can bring about distinct outcomes in terms of turnover, improved market share, customer retention, profitability, and productivity among others.   
 
KEYWORDS: Advertising, Brand Image, Consumer Buying Decision, Personal Selling, Marketing Mix.

Introduction The dairy industry is one of the most important components of the world food system, and is undergoing dramatic change at the current time. Currently processes of change are being driven by a wide range of forces including shifts to the regulatory environment for dairy production and trade, technological changes to the production of milk and milk-products, rapidly shifting consumption trends, and the restructuring of transnational corporate strategies with regard to this sector. It is highly probable that within ten years, the global dairy industry will be scarcely recognizable from its current form in many respects the dairy industry occupies a special position among the other sectors of agriculture. Milk is produced every day and gives a regular income to the numerous small producers. Milk production is highly labor-intensive and provides a lot of employment. The dairy industry is the sector with the highest degree of protection due to the economically vulnerable position of small milk producers.  

Milk also known as white gold - can be used to make an enormous variety of high quality products. The high cost of milk as a raw material has necessitated a high-tech processing industry. The special nature of milk (perishable and bulky) leads to the necessity of strict and comprehensive quality regulation and to high transport costs. The large dependence of milk producers on the dairy processing industry has resulted in a strong position held by the co-operatives in milk marketing and in the processing industry. The Milk is regarded as the most important source of nutrient, vitamin and mineral provider for people across the world. It is regarded as a sea of calcium which helps people develop stronger bones and muscles. The universal significance of milk has never been under estimated and efforts have continuously been made to augment the production of pure milk for consumption in various forms. Milk contains most of the essential nutrients for the maintenance of the physical wellbeing. 

Title: HDFC MUTUAL FUND SCHEMES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SELECTED SCHEMES

Authors: Rakesh Rangwani, Dr. B.L. Gupta

Page 308-313

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Mutual fund is the most prolific way to manage investment for small and medium investor. Funds to be invested come from assets already owned, borrowed money and savings. By foregoing consumption today and investing their savings, investors expect to enhance their future consumption possibilities by increasing their wealth. Generally, the primary concern of an investor is to minimize risk while maximizing return. This research is analytical research. The focus of the study is to evaluate the various schemes of mutual fund. The return on investment is always associated with risk.   
 
KEYWORDS: Mutual Fund, Beta, NAV, Borrowed Money, Consumption Trends.

Introduction Financial requirement of an individual finds no boundaries. Every individual aims at maximizing the flow of income from whatever source possible. The most interesting activity undertaken by an individual to fulfill this objective is to undertake investing. It is a very interesting activity which attracts people from all walks of life irrespective of their occupation, economic status, education and family background. Investment means employment of funds on assets with the aim of earning of income or capital appreciation. The two main factors that influence investment decisions are time and risk. Investment is the allocation of money to assets that are expected to yield some gain over a period of time. The main criteria for investment are the expected return, risk involved, and liquidity as well as safety of investment.    

In contrast to olden days when family businesses were dominating the economy, the liberalization of economy has paved way for many businesses to enter the field of competition. With the impact of globalization, companies are now into intense competition. Diversification of business has become order of the day. Such expansion decisions have made the companies to mobilize funds from the public. For this purpose, companies issue securities in various forms like shares, debentures, bonds etc. General public has various avenues to invest their funds and they choose an avenue which satisfies their needs by giving maximum returns on investment, security of funds and social security. Funds to be invested come from assets already owned, borrowed money and savings. By foregoing consumption today and investing their savings, investors expect to enhance their future consumption possibilities by increasing their wealth. Generally, the primary concern of an investor is to minimize risk while maximizing return.  

About the Company HDFC was incorporated as a public limited company on October 17, 1977 under the Companies Act, 1956 and received a certificate of commencement of business on December 3, 1977. Its registered office is situated at Ramon House, 169, Back bay Reclamation, H. T. Parekh Marg, Mumbai 400 020, Maharashtra, India. The equity shares of HDFC were listed on BSE in 1978 and NSE in 1996. The equity shares of HDFC are currently listed on NSE and BSE. 

Title: content in hindi

Authors: Nisha Sharma

Page 314-317

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Authors: Krishan Gopal Mali

Page 318-324

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Authors: Prof. (Dr.) Renu Jatana, Kanhaiya Lal

Page 325-331

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Authors: Poonam Kanwar

Page 332-336

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Authors: Uma Sharma

Page 337-344

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Authors: Sushma Sukhwal, Dr. Anita Khurana

Page 345-347

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Authors: Raghunath Meena, Dr. Anita Khurana

Page 348-354

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Authors: Dr. Moran Singh

Page 355-357

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Authors: Amita Khinchi, Dr. Nidhi Mehta

Page 358-362

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Authors: Manoj Kumar Sharma, Prof. (Dr.) B.P. Gaur

Page 363-368

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