General Impact Factor of Journal

2018 2.7273
2017 2.4668
2016 2.0546

Vol. 04| N0. 03| July-September, 2018

Title: Content

Page i-ii



Authors: Prof. M.C. Sharma

Page 1-6

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Indian agriculture depends on monsoon which is always flexible. It leads to operating risk in cultivation of different crops. Natural calamities may affect on the yield from agriculture sector. To cover the risk which may occur in future, there is need to some provision and crop insurance is only mechanism available to safeguard against production risk in agriculture. For fulfilling this need the Government of India has made experiments & efforts by introducing various schemes of crop insurance. Since the year 2007, Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme has been launched by Government of India. This research paper has made attempt to study the growth and development of Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme in Rajasthan. 
KEYWORDS:  Operating Risk, Production Risk, Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme.   

Introduction Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme was started for the first time during Kharif 2007 on a pilot basis. This scheme was based on Area approach. More than 70 percents ubsidy on premium is being provided to all farmers, which is equally shared by GO Iand Rajasthan Government. Crops like Bazra, Moong, Moth, Cowpea, Groundnut and Guar for Kharif season and Fenugreek, Coriander, Cumin, Gram, Isabgol, Sarso / Mastard, Taramira, Barley, Wheat for Rabi season are covered under this scheme. This scheme is not based on yield parameters, but based on several weather parameters like deficit/excess rain fall, excess temperature and dry days. All the farmers (loanee and non-loanee) are eligible in this scheme. However this is compulsory for loanee farmers. Reference Unit Area is linked to local weather stations. Risk period i.e. insurance period will be considered from sowing time to maturity of crop. The sum insured under WBCIS is broadly equivalent to cost of cultivation and it ispre-declared and notified by the insurance agency and banks. 

Review of Literature

          Sinha (2004) undertook a study of interstate comparison with respect to the effect of crop insurance policy. 

          Kalavakonda and Mahul (2005) analyzed the activity of crop insurance of India's second largest driest state Karnataka and pointed out the weakness in product design, implementation challenges and operational problems. 

          Karthik and Ramalingam (2013) analyzed the awareness level of farmers about various crop of insurance scheme and also evaluated the relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of farmers and their awareness level. 

          Balasubramanian (2014) in his article, highlighted issues related to weather based crop insurance scheme in Perambalur district of Tamilnadu where about 90 percent area is under rained. Therefore,WBLIS is more appropriate for covering the rainfall risks in cropping.


Authors: Dr. Neeta Anand, Dr. Vimlesh Kumari

Page 7-11

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The transport system provides the essential infrastructure for the development of a country. The demand for expansion of transport generally drives from the need of other sectors of the economy like agriculture trade industry and tourism etc. The transport requirements of any country determined by three basic components the population, the consumer needs, and the agricultural and industrial production. Out of these three components the first one is, size of population which itself determine the size of the other two factors. Transport sector has shown a massive increase during last three decades and also indicates an alarming growth potential during next twenty years. Transport development requires adequate resources and efficient management. The sector needs long range and heavy investment. Transport sector is generally considered as an infrastructure sector. It provides the basic engine of growth to an economy. The development of transport sector also enhance the production process in a country like India. Infrastructure needs long and heavy investment. Private firms do not find infrastructure provision as profitable. Beside this, these projects has very low internal rate of return and low pay back periods.

Air transport is a fastest mode of transport. It plays an extremely important role in time of emergency like war, floods and epidemics. It is also helpful in trade of luxurious and perishable goods. It is also time saving mode of transport. But presently Indian air transport facilities and air services infrastructure is constantly under pressure. Services provided by different airlines are quite inadequate to meet the traffic requirement on many crowded routes. Air transport sector is facing many problems like higher operational cost, rising aviation turbine fuel prices, terminal related problems, maintenance, repair and overhaul facilities at airports. In present scenario, air transport sector is in financial crunch. There is urgent need to allow foreign direct investment to meet the financial challenges by the air transport sector in India. This paper will discuss about Problem and Prospects of Civil Aviation in India. 
KEYWORDS:  Civil Aviation, Industry, Profitability.

Introduction The first air service in India started in 1912. A passenger flight operated between Karachi and Delhi started the era of civil aviation in India. The flight was started by the Indian State Air Services in collaboration with the UK based Imperial Airways. JRD Tata founded the first Indian airline -Tata Airline in 1932. Nine air transport companies were carrying both air cargo and passengers at the time of independence namely Tata Airlines, Indian National Airways, Air service of India, Deccan Airways, Ambica Airways, Bharat Airways, Orient Airways and Mistry Airways. Orient Airways shifted to Pakistan after partition. In early 1948, Government of India established a joint sector company, Air India International Ltd in association with Air India (earlier Tata Airline) with a capital of Rs 2 crore. According to Air Corporations Act, 1953 the Government nationalized nine airline companies.  Indian Airlines Corporation (IAC) was established to cater to domestic air travel passengers and Air India International (AI) for 


Authors: Dr. Md. Mahtab Alam

Page 12-18

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Economic think tanks predict India to be the world’s largest economy by 2050. This would require India to accelerate its industrial and infrastructure development. Industrialization based economic development will have a negative impact on the environment and hence sustainable development. Such steps could affect the social and environmental bottom line of the national economy. In the present globalised environment, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is considering as a tool of sustainable development. Worldwide people, international organizations, states, organizations of civil societies are involved to act their role to restore the ecosystem of the earth. Required logical parameters supported with legal provisions are setting up for the corporate world. In financial term, corporate sectors are bounded to expend a certain percentage of their average profit on safety of environment and activities that are essential for the improvement of life standard of society like healthcare, water and sanitation, education, plantation, and other facilities which are essential for the rural development. In the present scenario, CSR practices are being considered as legal responsibility of corporate world. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of CSR in globalised environment. The paper also attempts to emphasize that Corporate Social Responsibility is essential for economic development as well Environmental Sustainability. 
KEYWORDS:  CSR, Sustainable Development (SD), Impact of CSR on SD. 

Introduction India is slated to be the world’s biggest economy by 2050 (ARMSTRONG, 2012). Such growth will come from rapid industrialization. India’s economic growth has not translated to inclusive development for a large part of its population. The country is currently in the process of balancing its economic ambition with development that is sustainable and inclusive. This paper explores the linkage between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and sustainable development (SD) in emerging economies like India. In 2010, the Indian Government made CSR mandatory for more than 200 public sector undertakings (PSU), asking them to spend, on an average, 2% of their net profit on CSR. This guidelines, further revised in April, 2013, links CSR with SD. In August 2013, the top 1% of all listed Indian companies were mandated to spend 2% of their net profit on CSR. It has long been recognized that economic activities adversely impact the environment and society. Natural resources are depleted, environment polluted, ecosystems destroyed, and local villages and communities are displaced by the activities of economic development. These economic activities are badly affecting the natural phenomena of the glorious world. Industrial units of corporate bodies are taking ownership on natural resources and other means of public undertakings via the channel of disinvestments and other government policies. They are using them illogically in their own interest and for the maximum benefit of their stakeholders. But bad effects of these activities are creating pollution like air, water, noise etc. and scarcity of glorious natural resources that are taking place of natural calamities. Thus, these activities of corporate bodies must be liable and responsible for the bad effects of the entire chain from theirsource in natural resources to the final disposal as end products. 


Authors: Jyoti Dadhich, Dr. Asha Sharma

Page 19-24

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A Corporate Sector is an integral part of the society consisting of industries and firms. Their operations affect the various stakeholders of the society. The achievement is depends on the society. These industries and firms needs the inputs from the society and their outputs (goods & services) are also consumed by the society. This leads the industries towards the betterment of the society. These considerations of industries and firms can be termed as “Corporate Social Responsibility”. CSR is becoming an important activity to companies in India. The Govt. of India issued a number of guidelines for CSR practices time to time. In order to streamline the CSR practices, the Govt. of India made CSR as mandatory for companies under the companies act, 2013. As per the companies act 2013, profitable companies will have to spend at least 2 % of their average net profit over the preceding three financial year on CSR activities. Through the present study researcher has drawn a comparison of CSR practices of select Manufacturing Sector Companies and Service Sector Companies. This paper also examines whether any improvement in CSR spending by companies after the amendment of company law in 2013. 

KEYWORDS:  CSR, CSR Spending, Manufacturing Companies, Service Companies.

Introduction Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a business approach that contributes to sustainable development by delivering economic, social and environmental benefits for all stakeholders [1]. In other words it can be said that CSR is an ethical behavior of organizations, in which they consider the interests of society by taking liability for the impact of their activities environment as well as various groups of society such as customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, communities and other stakeholders. Globally, business organizations are under pressure to demonstrate themselves as responsible entities in front of society. Even in India, many business organizations have accepted their duties towards society. These business organizations are investing huge amount on the various welfare activities for the people of the society. It has seen that these activities not being prescriptive in nature. As a result, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Govt. of India introducing the CSR as mandatory for certain category of corporate houses.

Importance of the Study  

In India, CSR initiatives are taken by many companies. These companies are related to various sectors i.e. construction, manufacturing and service sector etc. As we know that economic actions of manufacturing sector companies are more effect the environment than service sector companies. It has seen that companies which affect environment directly are more aware towards Corporate Social Responsibility. In this study the researcher has tried to focus the CSR contribution of both manufacturing and service sector companies. 


Authors: Nishant Chaudhary, Dr. Nidhi Mehta

Page 25-27

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Cyber crimes are recently developed on a rapid scale due to wide and deep penetration of internet. The IT (Information Technology) Act 2000, and its amendment in 2008 along with several other policies and laws are unable to provide protection to people from cyber crime in large population country like India. We need to create awareness and capacity building among masses for achieving efficient and effective results. This paper contributes in helping to understand the capability of current laws in dealing with cyber crime, their loopholes  and what is the way forward to fix the loopholes so that a better crimefree society could be established. 
KEYWORDS:  Digital literate, Online Shopping, Social Media, Online Privacy.

Introduction Where the risk is low and rate of return investment is high, people always take the advantage of this type of situation and due to this cyber crime takes shape1. Moreover, the invisible nature of crime makes it difficult to find criminal, due to this cyber crime is increasing day by day. In India, there are several factors which are responsible for increasing the rate of cyber crime such as widespread poverty, huge unemployment, eagerness to make quick money among youth, lack of awareness among people, loopholes in laws, lack of trained officials in investigating agencies, etc. Therefore, law enforcing agencies must have proper training and awareness regarding different forms of cyber crime. For the same purpose Information Technology Act was enacted in 2000 and it was later amended in 2008 for incorporating certain changes of cyber space. 

What Is Cyber Crime?

             Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, networked device or a network. While most cybercrimes are carried out in order to generate profit for the cybercriminals, some cybercrimes are carried out against computers or devices directly to damage or disable them, while others use computers or networks to spread malware, illegal information, images or other materials.

Emergence of Information Technology Act, 2000

             Cyber crimes are recently developed on a rapid scale due to wide and deep penetration of internet.  People to fulfill their interest sometimes use illegal and dishonest means. Cyber crime is preferred by these people due to its inherent advantage like crime could be committed anywhere in the world by just sitting in the room. Rapid increase in online shopping, wide use of social media like facebook, whatsapp, etc , online banking, etc is the basic cause of cyber crime exponential growth in last few years. In spite of this people are hesitant to report cyber crime to authorities. Even if someone complaint then cyber cell of police is hardly efficient enough to resolve such issues. This is a very complicated situation and required to be dealt with immediate and concrete action


Authors: Reeti Gaur, Dr. Rajinder Kaur

Page 28-38

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Over the years, liquidity is recognized as the pre-requisite for the survival of the business and managers of the companies take active participation in the management of liquidity. They realize that adequacy of liquidity in the company determines the financial performance of the company. In light of this, the present study analyses the liquidity position of FMCG companies in India and its impact on the financial performance of the companies for the period 2001-02 to 2016-17.It has been revealed through analysis that the selected FMCG companies in India maintained liquidity level below the standard ratio of 2:1. On the other hand, large disparity has been found in the companies’ financial performance ratios and majority of the companies have ROA and ROCE below the industry average. The study showed that financial performance of the companies are significantly affected liquidity position measures and important among these are debtor turnover ratio and cash conversion cycle. Thus, the study concludes that the companies must work upon reduction of cash conversion cycle in order to improve profit margins. 
KEYWORDS:  Liquidity, Performance, FMCG, India, Cash Conversion Cycle.

Introduction Liquidity is the speed with which the companies convert their business activities into cash. Cash being the most liquid form of companies’ assets, are used to pay the upcoming financial obligations. Other than cash, other liquid assets include short-term investments, account receivables and inventories as they can be easily converted into cash when need arises and are jointly known as current assets. In the words of Chakraborty (2004), “liquidity is an attribute that signifies the capacity to meet financial obligation as and when required”. Since 1930s, the managers of big and small corporations realized that managing the liquidity is equally important as the other objectives of the company. An active participation of managers in liquidity management was initiated since then. But, what actually liquidity management signifies? Liquidity management is a day-to-day activity performed by companies assuring that they carry adequate liquidity with themselves. As too low or too high liquidity hamper either of the two objectives of the companies, i.e. 

  • Minimization of Risks: An uninterrupted business operation strives for a smooth flow of cash within the organization. This signifies that the company must have adequate working capital with itself to perform day-to-day activities which involves purchase of raw materials, paying for petty expenses, paying salary to employees etc. Inadequacy of funds to fulfill these financial obligations may lead to dissatisfaction among stakeholders. Thus, jeopardizing company with situation of bankruptcy, bad reputation, loss of creditor’s confidence or may be leading to high cost borrowings and thereby, creating a vicious circle of risks. The companies therefore, need to have adequate liquidity to meets its debt obligations and run the business operation with minimal risk. 


Authors: Dr. Akshita Jain, Ms. Suman Rathore

Page 39-42

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The competition to retain employees is very intense. In the top level executive departments spend large amount of time, effort and money trying to figure out how to retain their employees in the organization and taking the consent for the jobs as commitment for the organization .The companies or the organizations have started implementing the new strategies and the retention commitment procedures so as to employees can retain themselves into the organization. This study has been carried out on the employs working at Bajaj Auto Pvt. Ltd .Employee job involvement can be improved by increasing the career advancement and accountability rewards and sanctions. The research is based on both primary and secondary data which helps in understanding the techniques used for retaining the employees in the Automobile Industry. 
KEYWORDS:  Retention and Commitment of Employees, Job Satisfaction, Human Resource.

Introduction Bajaj auto Ltd is a two wheeler and three wheeler, an Indian manufacturing company which manufactures and sells motorcycles & scooters since 1940 in Rajasthan. The company is having its corporation in Pune, Mumbai, Chakan, Waluj (Aurangabad), Pantnagar (Jharkhand). Ahead it is the worlds sixth largest in manufacturing the Motor  cycles and second largest in India. It is the worlds largest three wheeler manufacturer company also. It is the first Indian to manufacturer and to deliver the motorcycles with sporty performances in production includes platina, discover, pulser, avenger, dominate, CT 100. Three wheelers are also been manufactured in Bajaj auto Ltd Aurangabad three wheelers  include the auto rickshaws which are been exported to many other countries according to the colour and choices. The low-cost car is a new identity Developed by the research department of the Bajaj auto Ltd which announced that the Bajaj Qute is the newly low-cost car which will be soon be launching into the market. This company has the controlling market over the two wheelers and three Wheelers. In this concern Bajaj limited hires and recruited almost 3500 employs with current working with the organization. Among all the organizations as There is a  human  tendency and  every Human have Their own perceptions and thoughts. If any of the employees of the department  leaves the  organization that will obviously will add to  the additional cost to the company for this to overcome the company is been providing and implementing  many of the retention strategies and commitments which also leads to an helps to retain the employs into the organization. 

Review of Literature There is comprehensive blend of intrinsic and extrinsic motivational variables that can enhance retention and reduce the high rate of employee turnover in various organizations Dr. K. Balaji Mathimaran & Prof. Dr. A. Ananda Kumar (2017). Employee engagement and retention lead to higher customer satisfaction and loyalty in organizations and management should contribute to employee engagement, effective recruitment of employees .Mrs. Rashmi. C. Sattigeri (2016).The real task for the 


Authors: Ashok Kumar Jain

Page 43-50

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This is a study of various Financial Restructuring Plans -prepared for facilitating turnaround of Rajasthan Power Distribution Companies (State Discoms). Its object is to identify reasons for their failure to financially improve to accomplish the break even. Financial  Restructuring  Plan (FRP) is  an action Plan aimed at turning around the Power Distribution Companies,  that sets out targets for various parameters viz distribution loss trajectory, average retail tariff increase,  growth in consumers( including cap on release of agriculture consumers) and energy sales, return on equity, investment and financing plan ,reform transitional period (turn around period) along with requirements from the Power Companies, the  Govt. of Rajasthan (GoR) and  also the Govt. of India (GoI) in case it is involved in the formulation of the plan. 
KEYWORDS:  FRP, Power Distribution Company (Discom), Distribution Loss, Return on Equity.

Introduction Financial Restructuring Plan (FRP) is thus a dynamic document which derives its shape from the underlying premises taken for the reform transition period. It would need to be reworked from time to time, as and when, actual performance found to be at variance from the assumed scenario. It is thus a sort of ongoing plan. On March 21, 2000, GOR approved the provisional FRP of the State Power sector, same was finalized in August, 03. It was then revised in November,05 (first updation), then came the second updation in November- December, 11. Same was further revised in June,13 in an attempt to align the FRP (Nov.- Dec.,11) with the provisions of Central FRP,as formulated and approved by GOI in October,12. UDAY (Ujjawal Discom Assurance Yojna), a scheme for the financial turnaround of the Discoms approved by GOI in November,15, is the latest manifestation in this direction. Based on the approved provisional FRP (March, 2000), the Rajasthan Power Sector Reforms Transfer Scheme-2000 (Provisional Transfer Scheme) was notified on July 19, 2000. This led to restructuring the vertically integrated Rajasthan State Electricity Board (RSEB) in to following five successor companies for generation, transmission & distribution functions earlier performed by monolithic RSEB: 

  • Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Limited (RVUN),
  • Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Prasaran Nigam Limited (RVPN),
  • Jaipur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (Jaipur Discom) for electricity distribution in Alwar, Bharatpur, Dausa, Jaipur City, Jaipur District, Jhalawar, Kota, and Sawai madhopur Circles.  
  • Ajmer Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (Ajmer Discom) for electricity distribution in Ajmer, Banswara, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Jhunjhunu, Nagaur, Sikar and Udaipur Circles.
  • Jodhpur Vidyut Vitran Nigam Limited (Jodhpur Discom) for electricity distribution in Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur City, Jodhpur District, Pali and Sriganganagar Circles.   


Authors: Dr. M. Reddi Naik, Dr. C. Venkateswara Rao

Page 51-54

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India is known for cultural diversity. As our country is an ethnological museum it has several social groups, governed by the Varna system.  One among them is the Banjaras. Banjaras is the biggest ethnic tribal group of India. They occupy the approximate 11% of the total Indian population they spread  all over the country and 6% of this community can be illiterate, ill health, seasonal unemployment, liquor addiction  seen in state of Andhra Pradesh. They are mainly dependent on monsoon agriculture. As drought prevailed in some areas due to utter poverty and highly deplorable livelihood, they started migrating from their native lands. As they move on to towns and cities in search for food and shelter. They were manipulated by the agencies, mediators. As a result most of the tribal people, especially the Banjaras entered into the heinous fields like prostitution, labour, robbery etc. They became the victims and are exclude from the main stream of social life even after 70 years of Indian independence. They are not blessed with adequate infrastructural facilities civic amenities and other opportunities for their integrated development. Due to certain constraints they have remained educationally, socially, culturally, politically and economically very weak in these modern times. It has to go a long way in achieving the goal of absolute educational, social and economic transformation. The present paper deals with the issues and Challenges of migrated banjara women in Andhra Pradesh. 
 Tribal’s, Migration, Banjaras, Deplorable Livelihood, Poverty, Cultural.

Introduction The genesis of land alienation began from the new pattern of social transformation taken by the tribal society.  It is characterized by the forces of modernization and migration.  One of the structural features of social formation and modernization is the occurrences of migration among the tribal's.  Demographically speaking, the economic non-viability of land acts as push factor to send the tribal's to industrial towns and cities for earning a livelihood.  This depeasantised working class is found in factories, hotels and business centers.  Tribal migration is somewhat different from migration among nontribal's, both at national and international levels. In terms of migration, the level of place of origin is backward, mostly illiterate and vulnerable to all kinds of exploitation and also tribal are exposed to a new kind of social structure and cultural system.  

Migration of Tribal Women and Girls Most of the tribal women and girls are illiterate and unskilled. Along with men, these women and girls also migrate to urban towns and cities. They face a number of problems in the big cities in India as the social and cultural system is totally different. Their housing conditions are miserable; economically they are still poor and financially and sexually exploited in the big cities. A great number of these


Authors: Dr. Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Page 55-58

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The unorganized  sector  may be identified  as small scale enterprises or units which  are not registered with  any  government agency or not governed  by Various acts of the Government . The basic features of this sector are easy entry, small scale of operation, local ownership, illegal status, laborintensive, flexible pricing, non standard production and packaging, lack of branding, unavailability of an effective distribution network etc. Employees of enterprises belonging to the unorganized sector have no job security and chances of growth, they have no entitlement of leave or paid holidays, they have no legal protection against any misconduct done by employer. While the unorganized sector workers and entrepreneurs are play a leading role for the growth of Indian economy. 
KEYWORDS:  Unorganized Sector, Unincorporated, Branding, Distribution Network.

Introduction The unorganised  sector  which  comprises of small scale enterprises or units and are not registered with any government agency or not governed  by Various acts like Factories Act, Bonus Act, PF Act, Minimum Wages Act . The sector which is registered by any Government agency the employment terms are fixed and employees have assured work is called organized sector. The term unorganized sector defined by National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized Sector in their Report on Conditions of Work and Promotion of Livelihoods in the Unorganized Sector as "... consisting of all unincorporated private enterprises owned by individuals or households engaged in the sale or production of goods and services operated on a proprietary or partnership basis and with less than ten total workers." The basic features of this sector are easy entry, small scale of operation, local ownership, illegal status, labor-intensive, flexible pricing, non standard production and  packaging,   lack of branding , unavailability of  an effective distribution network etc . Employees of enterprises belonging to the unorganized sector have no job security and chances of growth, they have no entitlement of leave or paid holidays, they have no legal protection against any misconduct done by employer.  The workers working in unorganized sector are playing a leading role for the growth of Indian Economy.  A CENSUS report estimates that in 2005 out of the 458 million persons employed in India, 86 % worked in the unorganized sector, generating 50.6 percent of the country's Gross Domestic Product.  

Actually unorganized workers are home-based workers or a self-employed workers or a wage workers.  It includes a worker in the unorganized sector who is not covered by any of the Acts pertaining to welfare Schemes as mentioned in Schedule-II of Unorganized Workers Social Security Act, 2008.Jul 30, 2015. The unorganized sector or   informal sector is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of Government. Activities of the unorganized or informal sector are not included in a country's gross national product (GNP) or gross domestic product (GDP). Only the activities of organized sector are included in a country’s Gross National Product (G.N.P.) or Gross Domestic Product. under the term of occupation, unorganized workers may categorized as  Small and marginal farmers, landless agricultural labourers, share croppers, fishermen, those engaged in animal husbandry, beedi rolling, labelling and packing, building and construction workers, leather workers, weavers, artisans, salt 


Authors: Monika Kataria

Page 59-61

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GST or Goods and Services tax is a significant indirct tax reform since independence to boost economic growth of the country.GST has emerged as a game changer in the Indian economy. France was the first country to implement GST to reduce tax evasion. Many other countries also adopted this tax system. All around the world, GST has the same concept. In some countries, VAT is the substitute for GST, but conceptually, it is a destination based tax on consumption of goods and services. India has chosen the Canadian model of dual GST, as it has a federal structure where the centre and states both have powers to levy and collect taxes. This paper helps to understand GST in India and other countries of the world. This paper analyse various aspects concerned with it. This paper also facilitates the comparison of GST in India and some other countries of world. 
KEYWORDS:  GST, Indirect Taxes, Tax Evasion, Economic Growth, VAT.

Introduction GST is a destination based tax on consumption of goods & services. GST is the biggest indirect tax reform of India. It is a comprehensive indirect tax levy on manufacture, Sale & consumption of goods & services. It is a single tax which is imposed on the supply of the goods and services right from the manufacturer to the consumers. The credits of the Input taxes that are paid at each stage will be available in the subsequent stage of value addition which makes GST essentially a tax only on the value addition on each stage. In the previous tax system there were a number of taxes, few levied by centre and rest by the state. To remove the multiplicity of taxes and reducing the load of consumers as a tax payer a simple tax is imposed that is GST. GST has subsumed 17 different taxes like VAT, Service tax, Excise duty, Octroi etc. GST in India is implemented with the propaganda of “One National, One Tax” to unite different indirect taxes under one umbrella. 

History of GST  Concept of GST is not new to the world as nearly 160 countries have opted GST. France was the first country in the world to implement the GST law in the year 1954. Since then around 159 countries have adopted this system in some form or other. Some of the countries who adopted GST are Canada, Vietnam, Australia, Singapore, UK, Spain, Italy, Nigeria, Brazil, South Corea etc. In India it was the year 2000 When Mr. Atal Bihari Vajpayi, Prime Minister at that time proposed GST. But this landmark moment in the history of modern India comes after nearby 18 years of debates, negotiations among successive central governments from different political partices and states and different interested stakeholders. Finally the GST act was passed in the Lok-Sabha on 29th March, 2017 and came into effect from 1st July 2017. Now it has been one year of implementation of GST act but still GST is the most discussed topic in India. 


Authors: Akancha Kumari

Page 62-66

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Businesses are increasingly finding themselves reflecting on the possibility of embracing corporate social responsibility (CSR) as an opportunity and a challenge around which the governance can be transformed through identification, evaluation and responding to social expectations. There is another concept which is synonymously used with CSR is Sustainability. There is a misconception that CSR, sustainability, sustainable business, corporate citizenship in general used to define the same thing. What it means for an organization to really be sustainable? In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development published “Our Common Future,” which defined sustainable development as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”  Sustainability has a more foresighted approach as compared to CSR as it focuses on what we need to achieve, rather than where we are today.

The corporate social responsibility (CSR) concept focuses on meeting the needs and balancing interests of present generation or society like building schools and hospitals to compensate communities for their resource exploitation. CSR do not always acknowledge the long-term impact on the communities and is more of policy compliance. As CSR is a part of corporate policy of an organization it sometimes imposes long-term liabilities on communities, making well-intentioned actions unsustainable for the society. The concept of CSR is often mixed with philanthropy. Sustainable development focuses more on long-term systemic issues, such as climate change and the inclusive economy and it more of time rather than specific issues. Sustainability is holistic approach comprising environmental, social, and economic aspects addressed by the organization/business, while CSR strategy or program, the “S” in CSR is toooften construed to mean a narrower approach on social issues. Thus, it arise a question i.e. how to identify a truly responsible organization or what is a responsible organization? To answer this, it can be deduced from the above description of CSR and Sustainability that Sustainable business or sustainability wins over CSR.  

          “Sustainability better captures the objectives of a responsible organization and it can be better integrated in the business policies and its mission and vision to create a just and sustainable world.” 

 In the present materialistic world, the business/organizations do need to recognize the interdependence between the economy and the natural resources. So the question which the organizations should think upon is that how well can sustainability considerations be integrated with the business policies to improve profits? 
KEYWORDS:  CSR, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Sustainable World.

Introduction The concern about meeting the needs of the present generation without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs characterizes the concept of sustainable development. In 2015, countries adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable Development 


Authors: Md. Umar Rayees

Page 67-70

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Motivation plays a crucial and significant role. Motivation has positive effect on the efficiency and performance of employees. It increases job satisfaction and brings stability in the workforce. The significance of motivation in the workplace is very high because it puts human resources into action and improves level of efficiency and job satisfaction. Motivation is a bunch of internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy to the employees to be continually interested in and committed to the job. There are many theories of motivation. Some claim that the role of social processes in the organization is vital, as long as the need of belongingness is more important than money. Others consider organizational reward system as a possibility to motivate employees. There is no one correct approach to motivation. Every individual has its own “need theory” and that is why knowing that how to motivate employees is very important in managerial practice. 

In the view of above facts our present project work is aimed at throwing light on the various motivational practices and its impact on employee’s satisfaction and performance, and consequent result thereof. There are several other factors, no doubt, which have far rich influence on human resource management and some of the factors are highly crucial in effect but with the growing development of the idea, industrial units are facing worldwide competition. As a result, the motivated and satisfied workforce has become very significant and its positive effect also has constructing influence on organizational efficiency. In this paper we would like to emphasis on Impact of motivational practices on job satisfaction and productivity. 
KEYWORDS:  Motivation, Job Satisfaction & Productivity, Motivational Practices, Productivity.

Introduction Employees are backbone of any organization. The success of every organization largely depends upon their employees. Employees are vital for the success and failure of the organization. Generating positive behavior of the employee is essential for creating congenial atmosphere and restoring the industrial peace in the organization. Employees in any organization need something to keep them working. The study of human motivation is of great importance in any theory of management. Human is an organic system, not a mechanical one. The input of energy such as food, water, rest, environmental conditions etc are converted by him into the outputs of behavior. This behavior is determined by relationship between his characteristics as organic system and the environment in which he moves. Management involves creation and maintenance of environment for performance of individuals working together in group towards accomplishment of organizational objectives and, therefore, the manger cannot perform his function without knowing what motivates people. 


Authors: Anis Ahmad

Page 71-79

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Financial performance refers to the act of performing financial activity. It is the process of measuring the results of a firm's policies and operations in monetary terms. Statement of Profit and Loss reflects the performance of the firm over a period of time. “It is a summary of a Company’s revenues and expenses over a specified period, ending with net Profit or loss for the period.” Performance measurement is becoming an essential tool for addressing questions of productivity improvement in terms of efficiency, effectiveness and accountability. The main idea behind this study is to analyze the financial operating position of the company. This research is done with help of secondary data which is gathered from the annual report of the company. Financial performance can be measured by using various financial tools such as comparative statement, profitability ratio, solvency ratio, etc. Based on the analysis, findings have been arrived that the company has got enough funds to meet its debts & liabilities, the Statement of Profit & Loss of the company shows that value of sales has increased every year except in 2015 but profit of the company is showing decreasing trend throughout the study period. 
KEYWORDS:  Financial Performance, Comparative Statement, Profitability Ratio, Solvency Ratio. 

Introduction It is the process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of a firm from the available accounting data and financial statement. The analysis is done by properly establishing the relationship between the items of balance sheet and Statement of Profit & Loss, the first take of financial analyst is to determine the information relevant to the decision under consideration form the total information contained in the financial statement. The second step is to arrange information in a way to highlight significant relationship. The final step is interpretation and drawing of inferences and conclusion. Thus financial analysis is the process of selection relating and evaluation of the accounting data information. This studying contains Comparative Statement of Profit & Loss, Ratio analysis, Liquid ratios, and solvency ratios.

Comparative Statement of Profit & Loss  It is the analysis of changes in different components of the financial statements over different periods with help of a series of statements. Such an analysis makes it possible to study periodic fluctuations in different components of the financial statements. 

Ratio Analysis  Ratio analysis is a widely used tool of financial Performance analysis. The term ratio is refers to the relationship expressed in mathematical terms between two individual figures or group of figures connected with each other in some logical manner and are selected from financial statements of the concern. It helps to express the relationship between two accounting figures in such a way that users can draw conclusions about the performance, strengths and weakness of a firm. 


Authors: Dr. L C Punjabi, Khushvant Khandelwal

Page 80-82

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Earning of profit is considered as a main objective a business. Every business concern tries to earn maximum profit or at least satisfactory profit. Though the actual profit earning is left on luck but profit planning should be well designed. So, there are two main goals before it, (a) to maximize its profit and (b) To grow and survive. These two goals can be achieved by it only maintaining proper relationship between the three factors Cost Volume, Profit that ultimately decides the profit structure of a business. For measuring and forecasting the profit of a business the financial experts use the technique of cost -volume profit or Break even analysis, this analysis is the technique which helps in study of relationship. 
KEYWORDS:  Earning of Profit, Break Even Analysis, Cost - Volume Profit, Product Mix.

Introduction Cost depends upon volume of output and volume of output depends upon selling price along with other factors, while profit depends upon On a large number of factors most important which are the cost of manufacturing and the volume of sales, both these factors are interdependent, volume of sales depends upon the volume of production and market forces which is turn is related to costs. Management has no control over market in order to achieve certain level of profitability; it has to exercise control and management of costs, mainly variable cost. This is because fixed cost is non-controllable cost. Cost is based on following factors.

  • Cost of production  
  • Product mix  
  • Internal efficiency and the profitability of the
  • Factors of production  
  • Method of production and technology  
  • Size of batches
  • Size of plant 

The Industry attempted humble start in 1906, when the first production unit of Single Super Phosphate (SSP) was installed in Ranipet near Chennai with an annual capacity of 6000 MT. The Fertilizer Corporation of India (FCI) in Sindri in Bihar ( now Jharkhand ) were the first big fertilizer plant installed in the fourth and fifth decade with an attempt to set up an industrial foundation to attain self reliance in food grains. Consequently, green revolt in the sixth decade gave a momentum to the development of fertilizer industry in India and in sixth and eight decade India saw a noteworthy in the capacity of fertilizer production.


Authors: Dushyant Bafna

Page 83-88

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The paper seeks to understand the impact of service quality of stock trading brokerage firms on customer satisfaction. There are many factors that are used to measure the service quality for trading brokers & all of them has some or the other effects on customer satisfaction. The common service quality factors for stock trading brokerage services are mentioned below - 

  • Customer’s convenience and their interests
  • Satisfaction in account maintenance policies  
  • Quality services of the firm
  • Risk management system
  • Employees behavior and their response to clients
  • Office ambience and infrastructure
  • Satisfaction in reporting information to clients
  • Redressal mechanisms
  • Satisfaction with optimistic projections to clients
  • Satisfaction with security services to clients 

This paper seeks to address only two key service quality measurement factors which impacts the customer satisfaction i.e. Risk Management System & Redressal Mechanism. 
KEYWORDS:  Customer Satisfaction, Service Quality, Risk Management, Security Services.

Introduction The stock broking industry is a service-oriented industry where brokers act as agents for investors when a security is bought or sold and are compensated with a commission.  Investors would not hesitate to switch to alternative brokerage houses if they do not obtain satisfaction.  Providing quality service and hence customer satisfaction should thus be recognised as a key strategy and a crucial element of long-run success and profitability for stock broking businesses.

SERVQUAL   To measure customer satisfaction with different aspects of service quality, Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988) developed a survey research instrument called SERVQUAL. It is based on the premise that customers can evaluate a firm’s service quality by comparing their perceptions of its service with their expectations.   

Stock Trading Shares/Stock trading is the buying and selling of company stock or derivative products based on company stock in the hope of making a profit. The trading of shares is one of the most popular and bestknown markets in investing, alongside forex and commodities. A stock trader or equity trader or share trader is a person or company involved in trading equity securities.


Authors: Sandeep Kumar

Page 89-91

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Role of education is essential in the development of higher education in Rajasthan. It is like a boat that helps to resolve all the problems and easy to adapt new changes in the external and internal environment. Government has been started E- facilities for college/ universities in these years which are really worth full and valuable for students, teaching staff and non-teaching. This growth promises to produce more skilled individuals to fulfill needs of ever growing state economy. On the other hand it is huge challenge for the governing bodies like UGC, AICTE and MHRD. E-Governance is the alternate for well administration which is designed to flexible or structured system and user friendly.  It is an integrated solution in the education sector that facilitates the processing and maintenance large volumes of information such as: registration, admission, student information, classes, time table, transport, attendance, library, salary, expenses, examinations, performance, grades, hostels, security, reports, management, fees deposit and among various departments in a higher education institution. 
KEYWORDS:  Higher Education System, Digitization, E- Learning, E-Administration.


          Higher education issue arises mostly in conference, seminar, and workshop. Here we are going to study and focusing E-Governance in higher institution; Universities in Rajasthan- Central university-01, Institutional National importance-02, state public university-14, state open university-01, state private university-19, Private deemed university-08. Over the last three years, state has remarkably transformed its higher education landscape. It has created widespread access to low-cost high-quality university education for students of all levels. 


         Infrastructure is the basic fundamental of higher education; Government started various schemes such as RUSA under MHRD for development of colleges and universities. It has various components such as wi-fi campus, smart classrooms, new construction, laboratory equipment, security camera cctv, renovation and sanitation. Administration on schemes is going effective through E governance it is directly monitored by MHRD by Electronic medium which is good for scheme execution and controls the schemes. Scheme gave new infrastructure and scope which could be possible through e-governance. 


         Work will be transparent and accurate with new technologies now each and every department connected through online. Education is going online such as; admission, scholarship, examination form, information through sms and online lectures. Skill development and training session become easy and collect information. India’s economy is expected to grow at a fast pace; rapid industrialization would require a gross incremental workforce of ~250 million by2030; India could potentially emerge as a global supplier of skilled manpower. India has the opportunity to become a prominent R&D destination. 


Authors: Dr. Anita Sharma

Page 92-94

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Skill development is a powerful tool to empower individual and improve their social acceptance. It must be complemented by economic growth and employment opportunity to meet the sizing aspirations to youth. Academic and Qualification are not our only important requirement. We will accept you to have taken on position of leadership and responsibility and show real ability to take initiative (Marks and Spence) Changes in the structure of the Indian economy and Labour market have made skill more important to have in order to generate the best outcome. There are many Opportunities available to learn in India shortage of hard skill and shortage of suitable employ abilities including soft skill are some of the key reasons in finding a suitable candidate for available jobs in the country. Employability of the growing young demography is an important factor in India. 

Following are the reasons to develop employability skills: 

  • To improve the transition from full time education into employability.
  • For promoting career advancement.
  • To move unemployment people into sustainable work.
  • To reduce the barriers to social mobility.

Even every level role in many industries requires base level qualification By skill development programme employment opportunity become wider. 
KEYWORDS:  Employability, Employment, Opportunities, Skill Development, Economy Growth.

Introduction “We seem to be going the wrong way. You start with’ make in India: what can you can make in India? Unless you are able to complete with what is made in China, Korea, Finland or whatever. You have to make in India what is equal to or better than what is made in the rest of the world.” Chidambaram said. Skill development raise Confidence, improves productivity and gives direction through proper skill development programme. It is also high time now measures are taken to improve the physical and mental development of the youths of the country so that none of them remains unemployment and the country’s unemployment problem also get reduced. One of important areas for concern for our economy is full employment. Employability of various qualified youngsters churned out of our educational system. It is the responsibility of our Government for co-ordination of all skill development efforts across the country, removal of disconnect between demand and supply of skilled manpower, building the vocational and technical training framework, skill up gradation, building of new skills and innovative thinking not only for existing jobs but also jobs that are to be created. 


Authors: Dr. Ashok Kumar, Ms. Nisha Sankhla, Ms. Nitika

Page 95-100

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In every business human resource capital is the most precious capital. In present scenario of cut throat competition skills development plays a crucial role in performance of this human capital in every industry. Hotel Industry is one of the sectors where skills of employee play a very vital role to determine the success of the organization. Soft skills not only help in improving the overall performance of human assets but it also enhances the tourist’s satisfaction. This paper is an attempt to identify the significance of soft skills. 
KEYWORDS:  Human Resource Management, Hotel Industry, Tourism, Tourists Satisfaction.

Introduction The Collins English Dictionary defines the term "soft skills" as "desirable qualities for certain forms of employment that do not depend on acquired knowledge: they include common sense, the ability to deal with people, and a positive flexible attitude."Soft skills are a bunch of prolific characteristics that characterize an individual’s relationships in a certain situation. These personalities traits can include social graces, communication abilities, language skills, personal habits, cognitive or emotional empathy, time management, team -work and leadership traits.  Soft skill is a common term for skills under three key functional elements: people skills, social skills, and personal career attributes. Soft skills are important job-related skills that encompass little or no interaction with machines and whose application on the job is quite generalized." A study conducted by Harvard University noted that 80% of achievements in career are determined by soft skills and only 20% by hard skills. A person's success in an organization is highly dependable on his/her soft skills. 

Indiana Business Research Center (IBRC) has found that, while credentialing in the form of degrees and certificates is important, development of soft skills; skills that are more social than technical will be a crucial part of fostering a dynamic workforce. Skills projected to be in the highest demand for all Indian occupations through 2014 include active listening, critical thinking, speaking, active learning, writing, time management, and social perceptiveness (Davies, 2007). Soft skills are those skills which becomes the main channel of communication when one person interacts with another person. Soft skills are today's power skill and are blend of interpersonal, communication and social intelligence skills that are in high demand in hotel industry. Soft skills complement hard skills also known as technical skills, for productive workplace performance and everyday life competencies (Arkansas Department of Education, 2007).  Soft skills are increasingly sought out by employers in addition to standard qualifications.  Hence, soft skills are as important as cognitive/technical skills (John, 2009; Zehr, 1998). 


Authors: Irshad Raza

Page 101-104

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In this 21st century globalization and intense competition, foreign direct investment (FDI) is a major source of non-debt financial resource for the economic development of India. This article emphasizes the need and urgency for restructuring rail transport services on commercial lines and suggests some reform measures to improve the productivity, efficiency and global competitiveness. It also will focus on role of FDI in development of Indian Railways and also describe Government of India has taken various initiatives as well as introduced policies to mitigate the strain on the existing infrastructure of the Indian Railways as well as address the issue of under investment and slow pace of modernization of railway sector.

KEYWORDS: FDI, Indian Railways, Global Competition, Globalization, Modernization.

Introduction Indian Railways network spread more than 66030 kms, making it the world’s third largest rail network. India has the fourth largest rail freight carrier in the world railway network and also the largest position in passenger carrier. India's railway network is recognized as one of the largest railway systems in the world under single management system. FDI has always been prohibited in the Indian railway sector, which has traditionally been a state owned and operated infrastructure facility. However, Due to the performance the Government changed position recently when the Government decided to open up the India’s largest commercial establishment, for private investments and FDI. 

The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) through it Press Note No. 8 of 2014 dated August 27, 2014 has introduced and permitted FDI in certain sub-sectors of the railways. The year 2014 was witness of many changes in Indian Rail history. Starting from the new Government with an absolute mandate (for the first time in the last three decades), to allowing foreign direct investment (FDI) in the railway sector (for the first time in the last 200 years of Indian rail history).Currently FDI in IR is fully opened up in 17 areas. In high-speed rail projects -informally called bullet trains - a foreign player is now allowed to run a parallel and fully privatized railway company, completely detached from the existing IR network. But FDI continues to remain prohibited in Railway Operations sector. 

Objectives In the year 1991, with liberalization in India, 8 major sectors were left out of from FDI. These were Defense sector, Atomic Energy, Coal, Mineral Oil, Mining of important minerals like coal, iron ore, certain minerals of atomic energy and Rail Transportation. As railways is the most widely used mode of transportation catering the need of about 23 million passengers every day. Since independence, India has added 13,000 km of new railway lines bringing the total size to about 66,060 km. Therefore, there is a need for improvement in the infrastructure and development of this sector which was fully government


Authors: Dr. Pingal Soni

Page 105-114

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Evolving consumerism and changing shopping behavior of Indian consumer made Indian retail market second largest in the world. With a compounded annual growth rate of 47%, E-Commerce is booming in India. Still, there is a long way to go for an e-tailer, as the model is new to the Indian consumers and with plenty of reasons; they seem reluctant to buy online. Among many challenges, winning the trust of the customer and convincing him for adopting online shopping is bigger. The paper aimed mainly to find the new prospects for e-tailing in India by understanding the behavior of Indian consumer. The attitude of respondent with different social, economic demographic (SED) factors were identified by a structures questionnaire, arranged and analyzed through Chi-square in SPSS 23.0. This study will help existing and coming e-tailers to analyze the relation between different demographic factors and behavior of Indian consumer towards online shopping, which carries the potential to change the game in Indian retail industry. 
KEYWORDS:  E-tailers, Consumerism, Social Economic Demographic (SED) Factors.

Introduction Technology is in everything and everywhere. Opening many grey areas, it made lots of advancement in our life. Almost all sectors and industries today are using computer technologies to improve their business practices. A very prevalent trend of selling products online has recently started to flourish in India. A lot of e commerce companies pop upped in recent year and suddenly their presence is felt in the market. The industry has achieved these significant figures in a situation where only a very small segment of the market is buying online. On one side when people prefer online buyer contrary to it on the flip side, there is a big segment of customer who still hesitate to place an order online. There are major technical, procedural challenges in front of retailers like availability of funds, Reliable logistic and supply chain, customer service and acquisition. Along with these technical reasons, a very critical challenge is the majority of the people, who still hesitate to buy online and that become a very strong point to understand and act on. 

Retail in India is undergoing a huge transformation in the way India shops and trade. The change has caught the eye of every segment and entrepreneur. The basic business model and commercial models are undergoing changes with the integration of e-commerce with them. The explosive growth in the last few years has already catapulted the biggest firms, among these many ventures past the billion-dollar territory. India might have only 300-odd million Internet users, out of its total population of 1.3 billion. But this has not stopped online commerce from establishing itself in the country. For any other industry, it takes decades of effort to have companies that are worth billion dollars. But in India, out of the nine startup unicorns, four are horizontal online marketplaces and despite the recent shutdowns and funding crunch affecting the startup ecosystem, digital commerce has established itself. The latest study by the Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI, 2016) has, in fact, found that at a CAGR growth rate of about 30 percent between December 2011 and December 2015, Indian digital commerce stands at Rs 1,25,732 crore. The report estimates that it will hit Rs 2,11,005 crore this year. However, online shopping comes only after online travel, which is valued close to Rs 76,396 crore. 


Authors: Sweta Rani

Page 115-120

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India has now implemented new tax reform GST from 1st, July’17 called as one nation one market one tax. It has spotlight most of taxpayers and dealers due to its compliance requirements, but how it affects the taxes in real estate sector (RES). It ensures different views from industry experts. The RES is one of the very momentous sectors of the Indian economy. It is the largest employer in the economy after agriculture, devoting an average of 5-6 % to the GDP. The Govt. of India has been supportive to the RES. The Union Cabinet has approved 100 Smart City Projects in India Aug, 2015. The Govt. has also raised Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) limits for townships and settlements development projects to 100%. Hence this article study is most important topic shows real estate opportunity and challenges despite GST obstacles in present scenario. 
KEYWORDS:  Real Estate Sector (RES), GST, REITs, Foreign Direct Investment.

Introduction The real estate sector is the biggest employer in India after agriculture and currently employs over 40 million workforces over 250 sectors and ancillary industries. It plays an important role in employment generation in India. Investing in real estate is not only a best investment, but it also allows for transfer of the property from one generation to the next. The total market size of Indian real estate is predicted to have doubled since 2008 and come to INR 7 lakh crore. India has the largest housing market in the world, with over 75–80% share in the total real estate market size in India. The expectation for growth is significant as India would need to develop over 170 million houses until 2030 to meet the demand of the rapidly urbanizing population. The real estate market of India is expected to touch US$ 180 billion by 2020. Only housing sector is expected to contribute around 11% to India’s GDP by 2020. Retail, hospitality and commercial real estate are also growing no doubtly. It provides the needful infrastructure for India's growing needs. New housing launches across top seven cities in India increased 27% per year in Jan-Mar, 2018. The Indian RES has witnessed high growth in recent times with the increase in demand for office as well as residential spaces. But the way, in which the real estate sector is developing, the study shows how the new indirect tax system of India affects the real estate sectors. 

In the before tax regime, when property under construction was bought, the purchaser was subjected to the paid of VAT, service tax, stamp duty, and registration charges. Property bought after completion were exempt from VAT and service tax, but stamp duty and registration charges were payable. The new indirect tax system as GST will alone solve the challenges faced by the real estate sector and help the sector to come out of its long slumber. From GST comes transparency in the functioning of RES. Hereby the overall increase in price for new residential properties could be lower than that for new commercial properties. It will reduce the cost of purchasing houses for buyers as in the previous tax regime, which they had to pay as Service Tax and VAT on purchase of residential unit when booked prior to their completion and also developers had to pay as excise duty, custom duty, CST and Entry tax, which is non-creditable tax cost on their professional side, which is included in the price of 


Authors: T.M. Madhavaiah

Page 121-123

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Government of India objective in second five year plan mainly heavy industries, manufacturing industrial goods by public sector. Later on shifted to private sector as per company act 2013, define private company as a company which by its article restore the rights to transfer of its shares with number of its member to two hundreds public company limited raises its capital by issuing shares to the public as preference shares and equity shares. Here 3 types of shares and each with two categories has been analyzed. Top capital stock and worst capital stock shares have been considered.  It has been analyzed to look which shares are trading with attractive valuations indicating scope for growth by statistical analysis, scope for growth has been deducted. 
KEYWORDS:  Capital Sectors, Shares, Valuation, Trading, Growth Funding, Private Sectors, Industries.

Introduction More or less for stable economic set up down the years 5 year plan are introduced. Second five year plan effective from 1956-61 with objectivity mainly on heavy industries boosting manufacturing of industrial goods in the country, primarily to develop public sectors by Mahalanabis model proposed in the year 1953, the model assume economy in closed.  It has two segments. i.e. consumption goods and capital goods.  Government is optimistic of assignment of funds among the various productive and consumption segments by private sector.  Government later on introduces industries in private sectors.  Company act 2013 define private company which by its article respect the right to transfer of its shares, except in case of one person company limited the number of its members re restricted to two hundred.  A public company Act 2013 is registered with any amount of paid up capital. A public company limited by shares raises its capital by issuing shares to the public.  The shares to the public is of two types preferential shares and equity shares. 

Now here 2 categories of capital sector shares and each with 3 types has been taken into consideration.  They are top 5 small capital stock shares and worst 5 small capital stock shares, Top 5 mid capital stock shares and worst 5 mid capital stock  shares, Top 5 large capital stock shares and worst 5 large capital stocks, shares has been taken and subjected to statistical analysis to see the scope for growth in trading.  Share Market Company discovered by Anuradha chatterjee. 

Methodology YTD market performance data has been  taken for stock indices preference of Top 5 small capital stocks and worst 5 small capital stocks, Top 5  mid capital stocks and worst 5 mid capital stocks, and worst 5 mid capital stocks, Top 5 large capital stocks and worst 5 large capital stocks has been taken into consideration. They have been subjected to statistical analysis for comparing which share is trading high with market value with high index. Statistical data like mean, standard deviation, and variance and standard error has been taken. 


Authors: Isha Pareshbhai Vyas

Page 124-126

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Information technology has been playing a vital role in marketing and financial sector. It gives benefit to the consumer and seller; e-commerce gives challenges to traditional business. Developing countries also face some problems. E-commerce provides to every customer smooth and services and it also provides many options of payment on online. Other benefit that it expands the edges of the business at global level, but it can also face many challenges in developing countries. 
KEYWORDS:  Information Technology, Financial Sector, E-commerce, Global Level. 

Introduction E- Commerce started in 1995.Now a day it is very popular. E-commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services on the internet. More than that internet is also use for a source of information for comparing prices or look at the products on offers which and latest product before purchasing it online or from retail stores. For many more purpose E commerce is useful. For working out the transaction it requires the digital instrument. Digital instruments are instrument that can be delivered over the digital network. E-commerce is rapidly transforming the way which enterprise is collaborating among each other as well as with government and consumer. Now a day’s technologies are also designed to commercial transaction using the internet have also increases. However, India has not yet achieved an ideal word of secure and fully safe transaction utilizing the internet and technologies. Ecommerce has been given the many opportunities for developing countries to take huge advantages in multilateral trading system. The use of digital instrument like internet, smart phone, tabulate are rapidly increases and become popular. With social media growing rapidly in these days’ conversations of the consumers and seller has been more increases and make easy to buying and selling the goods and services. It gives benefit to the companies, businessmen, government, seller and consumer in developing countries by increasing the control over the place in supply chain and all over the market.

Why E-commerce?

       With the rapidly growing the usage of ICTs and more specifically, the internet, E-commerce and global business community is moving toward (B2B) business to business. Seller and buyer both gain the clear advantages of global market. It also gives the awareness of substitute products. With the transparency of the market, customer can compare the various goods and services of E-commerce. Goods and services which are purchased by customer and they are not satisfied with it they can also change the product:

  • To know the advantages of E -commerce  
  • To identify the challenges of E-commerce 

Research Methodology

        This paper has been written on the basis of secondary data. The secondary data, journals, research papers, magazines, daily newspaper were collected from published book journals, internet and official documents. 

Title: Content in hindi

Authors: Poonam Kanwar

Page 127-133

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content in hindi

Title: content in hindi

Authors: Dr. Moran Singh

Page 134-138

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content in hindi