General Impact Factor of Journal

2015 2.0778 1.7122
2016 2.3982 2.0546

Vol. 02 | No. 02 | April - June, 2016

Title: Content

Page I-IV


Title: Overall Objectives Of An Independent Auditor: A Perception Analysis

Authors: Dr. Siddhartha Sankar Saha, Mitrendu Narayan Roy

Page 1-12

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The study investigates into the respondents’ perception on overall objectives of an independent auditor and its impact on quality control procedure for statutory financial audit. Perceptions of 227 CAs and 146 Students pursuing Chartered Accountancy course have been collected and empirically analysed using Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity, Mann-Whitney Test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and t test. The study finds that opinions of CAs and Students are not homogenous for the issues selected under study. However, they are not significantly different for ‘maximum audit per period’. Issues concerning ‘sufficiency and enforceability of auditing standards’, ‘cost of audit procedure’, ‘periodic audit’ significantly influence ‘quality control procedures for statutory financial audit’.

Title: Accounting Education In India: Emerging Dimensions

Authors: Dr. Anju Kansal

Page 13-17

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Accounting education in certain developed countries has undergone a paradigm shift in tune with the changing global economic environment. The environment of accounting in the various developing economies has also changed and certain new challenges have emerged. Hence the accounting education and profession should not be neglected in this scenario. The Information technology and the Globalisation of Markets are the primary factors requiring various changes in the accounting education . It is therefore important to mention here that world regions and professions vary in terms of the stage of the development of accounting education and the nature of their economic systems. In this paper the emerging issues of accounting education in a newly emerging market economy like India have been discussed. The study is based on the secondary data collected from various government publications, professional institutes, universities and colleges in the country.

Title: Concept Of E-Banking : Merits And Demerits

Authors: Dr. Manish Shrivastava

Page 18-22

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Internet Banking refers to the banking services provided by the banks over the internet. Some of these services include paying of bills, funds transfer, viewing account statement, etc.Banks also deliver their latest products and services over the internet. Internet banking is performed through a computer system or similar devices that can connect to the banking site via the internet. Nowadays, you can also use internet banking on your mobile phones using a Wi-Fi or 3G connection. With the ease of availability of cyber cafes in the cities, it has become quite popular. Internet Banking has several advantages over traditional one which makes operating an account simple and convenient. It also has some disadvantages which must be taken care of.

Title: Impact Of Branding Elements On Consumer Choice : A Study

Authors: Dr. T.G. Mirge

Page 23-30

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Subsequent to the Second World War the seller’s market has moved out and buyers market has arise. Consumerism has dominated all the facet of life that follows the pattern of the entrepreneurial culture where the human values have an unusual measure, ‘you are known by what you have not by what you are’. This of course leads to the life in a society where one and all want to have an exceptional place in the society, by possessing the things which sets them apart from the rest of people in the society. And for living in the present society the brands not only represent the symbol of the company or product but to a larger extent define the general life of a person. Branding is a process of stamping a product or a group of products or something else which the marketer offers, with some identifying name and mark or combination of both. It creates individuality in the offering facilitating it to be easily distinguished and recognized in the market from rival offerings. The purpose of this study is to examine how influential specific brand Elements are and how important they are to the overall brand. This paper expands the understanding of different brand elements and highlights the importance of brand elements that highly influence consumer involvement in product purchase.

Title: Regional Disparities In Geographical Development Of Upsrtc

Authors: Dr. Pushpendra Misra, K.K. Singh

Page 31-44

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Any transportation network is a reflection of the contemporary spatial organization of economy, social conditions and political set-up. So, transportation is an essence for the development of any region or country. Present study analysed the regional disparities in Geographical Development in UPSRTC. Nature of the study is analytical, in which descriptive research methodology is used. Study is based on secondary data obtained form the annual reports of UPSRTC, Cumulative Operational Result, Cumulative Costing Statement, Circular release from UPSRTC, Lucknow office. Mann-Whitney U-test has been utilized to find out the significance in difference, if any. Highly significant difference between regions of UPSRTC was found in bus utilisation, total income earn and total expenditure and in profit/loss per bus per day. A significant difference between regions of UPSRTC was found w.r.t. annual change in load factor. But, no significant difference has found between regions of UPSRTC w.r.t. fuel average, No. of buses, Earned Kms. and total profit/loss. Study recommend that regional disparities should be removed by including more number of routes in regions with less operated routes and by including new routes or increasing frequency of bus operation in less route-length covered regions. Effective maintenance, management and monitoring must be ensured to remove regional disparity.

Title: Corporate Score Card: A Strategic Management And Control Tool: Does It Only Deal With Strategy?

Authors: Dr. Laxman Ram Paliwal

Page 45-53

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The corporate scorecard is used as a strategic planning and management technique. This is widely used in many organizations, regardless of their scale, to align the organization's performance to its vision and objectives. The scorecard is also used as a tool, which improves the communication and feedback process between the employees and management and to monitor performance of the organizational objectives. As the name depicts, the balanced scorecard concept was developed not only to evaluate the financial performance of a business organization, but also to address customer concerns, business process optimization, and enhancement of learning tools and mechanisms. In this paper, An Empirical Study in Indian Context of Indian Company (Trident India Limited) in respect of Corporate Score Card: A Strategic Management and Control Tool has been made.

Title: Components Of Cost Control And Effectiveness And Its Impact On Average Price

Authors: Prof. Arvind Kumar, Shambhavi Shukla

Page 54-65

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The average price of the two wheelers has increased significantly over the selected 12 years of study. This can be attributed to increasing in cost components and changing consumer demographics especially lifestyle and income, which have given a great push to motorcycle market, which commands higher price. This shift in demand and its considerable increase has resulted in increase in production in recent years, which has also resulted in a significant upward movement of the raw material cost. The present research study focused on the two wheeler segment and the selected two companies Hero Honda Motors Ltd. and Bajaj Auto Ltd. Researcher selected seven cost components-Average raw material (RMC), Average power fuel (P&F), Average Employee cost (EC), Average Other manufacturing expenses (OME), Average selling and distribution exp (S&D), Average miscellaneous exp. (ME) & Average interest paid (IP) and checked their impact on Average Price (dependent variable) of the product in total two wheeler sector.

Title: App Marketing: A Digital Marketing Innovation

Authors: Ravi Kant Modi, Aanchal Puri

Page 66-70

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In this Digital Era of Marketing where you can just snap a deal, Ola your cab, Google your doubts, you tube videos, vision through Lens kart, flip your cart and your latest fashion mantra is Myntra. The morning yawn and a cup of tea is replaced by your smart phone. You are already in the app world where you are either checking your fitness login or your daily offers. Research says that In India there are over 900 million mobile phone connections over 200 million internet users. This sustainable marketing approach is taking our society towards a paperless world. App marketing is a real sustainable approach and a viable option connecting buyers and sellers regardless the time frame and distance. It is estimated that by 2020 there will be US $ 100 Billion e- commerce market. New data of Ac Neilson shows that Android and iphone users age 18 and over, spend 65% more time each month using app then they did in last two years. The increasing number of smart phone users and the daily application download rate is itself a reason which defines the adaptability of this sustainable approach. The popularity of app marketing amongst the common man is definitely proving that we are in a technology driven world. But, the question of privacy and the intellectual property issue is the major challenge for this digital marketing option. The present internet usage statistics and the increasing rate of Smartphone usage in India is an evidence for digital innovation and a shift of marketing communication and technology aiming towards creating a better sustainable growth of business.

Title: Impact Of Stress On Morality Of Teachers In Private University : A Case Study In Lucknow

Authors: Smriti Srivastava, Prof. H.K. Singh, Shailesh Kumar Singh

Page 71-79

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At present scenario life is full of deadlines, hassles, demands and frustrations. For many people, stress is so common place that it has become a part of their life. Stress isn’t always bad. In small doses, it can help you perform under pressure and motivate you to do your best but your mind and body pay the price by constantly running in emergency mode. You can protect yourself by recognizing the signs and symptoms of stress and taking steps to reduce its harmful effects. Define stress as a "relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her wellbeing." Stress is a common human experience frequently blamed for much of the ill health individuals’ experience. Much focus is been given to the effect of stress on health and wellness. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between psychological stress and health. This paper shows that how stress can be harmful for the human body that an individual can be move onto suicide. Stress effects a human mind by which the power of thinking totally get changed, firstly stress change the human psychology and afterwards it effects the human attitude, motivation, personality, behavior, inspiration, positive thinking, decision making etc. Here not only the stress has been described but also mention that how you can check your stress level and how you can manage it.

Title: Data Communication Through Li-Fi And Wi-Fi

Authors: Pramod Kumar Pandey, Varun Sapra

Page 80-84

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The current data communication technology is perhaps the greatest engineering achievement of the 21th century. However, information technology regularly become older and overburdened on the other hand speed of data communication and accordingly cost of the services also varies day by day. For this and various other reasons, transformation or enhancement efforts are underway to make the current electrical era smarter. Now a days everyone wants reliable and secure communication but avoidance of too much hardware condition is also there. A special attention is given to the design of efficient and security proof network architecture capable of managing operation and control of the next generation information technology. For this purpose there are some wireless technologies are emerging in addition to the formerly applied to help upgrade the current data communication trend. In this paper we are introducing wireless technology called Wi-Fi and Li-Fi .This paper also includes the comparison between these technologies. Wireless communication is becoming the standard in the business world. The market for wireless communication has grown rapidly since the introduction of 802.11b wireless local area networking (WLAN) standards. Li-Fi is a new wireless technology to provide the connectivity within localized network environment. There are various applications where we can apply the Li-Fi technology like Aviation, Underwater communication, Controlling traffic signals , Education system and many more. Li- Fi is a fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi, which is based on Visible Light Communication (VLC). The source of Li-Fi technology is high brightness LED’s. These LED’s (Light Emitting Diodes) can be switched on and off very quickly which gives you the opportunities for transmitting data at very high speed and also provides flexibility.

Title: Government Accounting System In India : An Overview

Authors: Dr. C. P. Jain, Ankit Acharya

Page 85-92

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Accounting is the most essential function of each and every concern-both commercial and non-commercial. Accounting is necessary to find out the final results of the concern and to assess its financial position. Unlike profit seeking concerns, viz. Partnership firms, companies etc., the financial management of any organization must have a prudent financial system backed by sound and effective accounting processes and internal controls. A well- designed and well managed accounting system helps ensure proper control over funds. Accounting policies and procedures are designed to compile accounts, fulfilling legal/procedural requirements that govern financial control. Accounts are an integral part of financial management of activities. On the basis of accounts, the Government determines the shape of its monetary and fiscal policies. The aim of the Government is not to make profit, but to pave the way for the development of the country and welfare of the society as a whole. And yet accounting is one of the most important aspects of any Government’s function.

Title: Investing In Emotional Assets: Evidence From India

Authors: Shifa Mahajan, Dr Karamjeet Singh

Page 93-98

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Amid massive unpredictability traditional financial assets, long-term investment performance of collectibles have come into glare of publicity. As per academic researches it is found that these so called emotional assets have outperformed government bonds, treasury bills and gold over long run. However, Indian investors are still holding the traditional assets owning to murkiness in the alternative asset. This paper reviews risk, return and cost facets of the alternative emotional passion investments in India.

Title: Production Cost Of Cement : A Case Study

Authors: Sakshi Vij

Page 99-104

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Production is an intentional act of producing something in an organized manner. It is the fabrication of a physical object through the use of men, material and some function which has some utility e.g. repair of an automobile, legal advice to a client, banks, hotels, transport companies etc. Production management is a branch of management which is related to the production function. Production may be referred to as the process concerned with the conversion inputs (raw materials, machinery, information, manpower, and other factors of production) into output (semi finished and finished goods and services) with the help of certain processes (planning, scheduling and controlling etc.) while management is the process of exploitation of these factors of production in order to achieve the desired results. Thus production management is the management which by scientific planning and regulation sets into motion the part of an enterprise to which it has been entrusted the task of actual transformation of inputs into output. Thus production management is concerned with the decision making regarding the production of goods and services at a minimum cost according to the demands of the customers through the management process of planning, organizing and controlling. In this paper I have discussed about the Production Cost of Cement.

Title: Divergence In Sector-Wise Investment Of Lic During Pre And Post-Reforms Period: An Analytical Study

Authors: Shib Pada Patra

Page 105-116

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Financial institutions operating in India play a very important role in the financial system. They accumulate the capital from the investors and invest this capital in Indian financial markets. It helps to boost the growth of Indian economy. They facilitate the process of capital accumulation by transferring resources from savers to investors. These institutions are comprised of Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Unit Trust of India (UTI) and General Insurance Corporation of India (GICI), etc. However, LIC have an immense role to mobilize the savings of people into Indian economy. The regular savings of Indian people through life insurance products of LIC has brought significant improvement in the growth of life insurance sector. This has helped to increase the growth and performance of life insurance business which accelerate the growth of economic development in India. Enormous premium collected by LIC are invested through their investment portfolio into various investment sectors in India. In present circumstances, Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) regulates the life insurance investment portfolio taking policyholders’ protection and healthy growth of insurance market with priority of economic development in India. The present paper will focus on the sector wise investments during pre and post-reforms period to analyze year-wise growth analysis as well as significant differences and homogeneous subsets among different sectors using one way ANOVA and Tukey’s HSD Test during the pre and post-reforms era.

Title: Make In India : A Perspective From Diversity Management

Authors: Dr. R. K. Tailor, Peeyu Agarwal

Page 117-125

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The Prime Minister’s recent launch of the “Make in India” campaign has generated much debate about its effectiveness, benefit to the Indian economy and its execution. The following paper discusses the need of such a campaign, the advantages it will bring to the economy, why India is best suited for such a campaign, and the challenges that the companies setting up in India will face. The challenges are discussed on two fronts, policies and environment of the economy and the management challenges. The paper gives a brief account of only the management challenges due to diversity of the workforce resulted from such a situation.

Title: Impact Of Cash Flow Ratio On Financial Performance: A Case Study Of Selected Petroleum Companies In India

Authors: Rishi Kant Mittal, Swati Jain

Page 126-132

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Cash flow analysis is thought to be more effective in determining petroleum companies effectiveness and competitiveness in the market because it is a more dynamic examination of actual return on assets and equity. Additionally, this unique use of cash flow analysis is applied to the concept of emerging markets and the proposal that cash flow analysis is a better measure of performance and competitiveness for firms that are competing in emerging markets. With the introduction of the cash flow statement it became an integral part of financial reporting. A need arose to develop ratios for the effective evaluation of cash flow information. This article investigates cash flow ratios suggested by various researchers and suggests a list of ratios with the potential to predict financial performance. Income statement and balance sheet ratios are not enough to measure liquidity. An entity can have positive liquidity ratios and increasing profits, yet have serious cash flow problems. Ratios developed from the cash flow statement should supplement traditional accrual-based ratios to provide additional information on the financial strengths and weaknesses of an entity. With the introduction of the cash flow statement it became an integral part of financial reporting. This research paper focuses an attempt to make an analytical study for measuring the financial performance through control of cash flow and ratio analysis of selected petroleum companies. In this study researcher have tried to show how and to what extent, the control of cash flow can supplement additional financial information to satisfy all the stakeholders of the organization.

Title: Role Of Globally Accepted Camel Model In Performance Appraisal Of Scheduled Commercial Banks In India

Authors: Shilpa Sahota, Dr. Babli Dhiman

Page 133-140

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Banks acts as fuel for smooth functioning of any economy as general and financial sector as specific. In this ever changing complex scenario, it is imperative to investigate and report the overall position of banks to ensure effective financial system in any economy. After the adoption of latest uniform rating system of banks model, several studies has conducted at international and national level to check the internal overall performance of banks at different time period. The main objective of article to determine the effectiveness, efficiency of model acronym in bank supervision. This supervisory system in banking sector is considerable improvement over the earlier system in terms of frequency, coverage, position & focus. In this article, reviewed the papers used the CAMEL model framework to assess the financial, operation and managerial position of banks for the period 2009-10 to 2015-16. CAMEL Model highlighted the true picture of internal proceedings (adequacy of capital, quality of assets, capacity of maximum earning with sound liquidity position) of particular bank irrespective of its Market Capitalisation, size, index, trading on stock market and reforms adaptive capability. It is concluded that model revealed the on-site viability, soundness of banks from time to time, irrespective of the category.

Title: Micro Analysis Of Consumer Cooperative : An Overview

Authors: Kapoor Singh Jorasia, Divya Jindger

Page 141-145

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Cooperative movement in Rajasthan started with the formation of Upbhokta Bhandar's with the aim to provide quality goods at right price to members. The paper covers the organizational framework of consumer cooperatives in India and micro analysis at state level discussion. For this purpose detailed study of the performance of Rajasthan state consumer cooperative federation is explained from year 2002-03 to 2012-13.

Title: Analysis Of Capital Structure: An Overview

Authors: Dr. Purnima Maheshwari

Page 146-150

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The term capital structure is a compound of tow words capital and structure. The word capital is viewed from different angles. According to economist capital refers to those assets which are used in the production of goods and services. To the firm the capital is represented by the stock of assets. To the society, capital is restricted to those assets which produce goods and services Accountants use the term capital in the sense of proprietary equity. In fact there are two approaches of capital viz. (i) the fund approach and (ii) the assets approach. The fund approach means that the capital of a concern uses the total funds that have been employed for its running. It recognized the separate entity of a company and considers capital from liabilities side of the balance sheet. The assets approach implies that capital invested in fixed assets and current assets from the capital of a concern. The term structure is used in the science of engineering. “It connotes the arrangement of various part of a building. In case of construction of a building and other construction. There are some standard proportions in which various elements are integrated together.” Hence capital structure relates to the proportion of various sources of funds used to finance the company’s capital requirements.

Title: Inflation And Unemployment Trade-Off : A Case Study Of Indian Economy In The Post Reform Period

Authors: Harshleen Kaur, Dr. Suman Makkar

Page 151-157

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This paper is an attempt to examine the existence of Phillips Curve in the Indian economy. AW Phillips in his seminal paper titled The Relationship between Unemployment and the Rate of Change of Money Wage Rates, in the United Kingdom, 1861-1957 estimated the relationship between unemployment rate and rate of change money wage rates which he took as a measure of inflation. His study revealed that there was a permanent, stable, inverse and non-linear relation between the two. Unemployment and inflation rates are the cornerstones of development for any country. In this paper, it has been endeavoured to determine the existence of Phillips Curve in the case of Indian economy for the post reform period, that is, from 1990 to 2012. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method, correlation and Granger Causality approach are used to analyse time series data. Our findings are consistent with the Monetarists and New Keynesian schools of thought which suggested that the traditional relation between the two variables breaks down in the long run and also there is no causal association between the two. Our results lend support to RBI’s policy of inflation targeting to achieve the desired level of economic growth.

Title: Shareholder Value Creation: A Study On Predictive Model

Authors: Dr. K. R. Jalaja

Page 158-170

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In the Expectations market, investors assess the real market activities of a company today and on the basis of that assessment, form expectations as to how the company is likely to perform in the future. The consensus view of all investors and potential investors as to expectations of future performance shapes the stock price of the company. The objective of performance measurement and management is to increase the shareholder value, profitability, growth, competitiveness, quality, customer satisfaction, etc. of an organization resulting in improved performance. FCFE (Free Cash Flows to Equity) represent a smoothed out measure of what companies can return to their stockholders over time in the form of dividends and stock buybacks. It is interesting to know that attempts have been made to study the historical data and measure what has been the performance of the Company in the past, but efforts have not been made to forecast/predict the Shareholder Value Creation. Predicted Shareholder Value Creation shall also act as a benchmark for the performance of the Company in the direction of Value Creation. Hence an attempt has been made in this paper to forecast the shareholders Value Creation which is the expectation of the large number of Investors by developing Cash Flows Based Model for forecasting Shareholder value creation in the Companies.

Title: An Analysis Of Changes In India?S Occupational Structure : A Shift From Primary Sector To Service Sector

Authors: Dr. Kshama Agarwal, Rose Martin

Page 171-176

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India has been known as a primary producing country with agriculture being the main occupation of majority of its citizens. Since the advent of New Economic Policy in 1991, India has been witnessing marked shifts in the occupational structure from primary producing to tertiary sector. With more and people engaging in non- agricultural pursuits, especially those in the tertiary sector, there has been a steady growth in the services sector and decline in the number of people engaged in the primary sector. Several economists like Colin Clark and A. G. B. Fisher in their popular works have established a relationship between economic development and occupational structure. Clark had argued that a high average level of real income per head is always associated with a low proportion of the working population engaged in tertiary production and a high percentage in primary production. This paper seeks to analyze the extent to which this change in India’s occupational structure has contributed to economic growth and how far the conclusions of Clark and other economists have come true in India’s case by analyzing the impact of this shift in occupational structure on the macroeconomic variables of India like per capita income, distribution of working population and
GDP growth rates, etc., and its implications on the Indian Economy.

Title: Non Performing Assets (Npas) : A Comparative Analysis Of State Bank Of India And Hdfc Bank

Authors: Dr. Ashok Kumar Gupta, Priyanka Gautam

Page 177-184

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Research Issue: The main function of any bank is to lend funds as loans to various sectors such as agriculture, industry, personal and housing. In yester years the banks have become very cautious in extending advances, because of increasing Non-Performing Assets. The aim of study is to evaluate the performance of the State Bank of India and HDFC Bank in India with reference to the problem of Non-Performing Assets (NPA). The objectives of this study is : (i) To analyze the trend of the NPA in SBI and HDFC bank in India , (ii) To determine the relationship between Net Profit and NPAs, and (iii) To make a comparative study of NPA among the selected banks.

Title: Corporate Governance : An Empirical Study Of Automobile Companies In Bse Top 100

Authors: Dr. Meenu Maheshwari, Sapna Meena

Page 185-193

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Manuscript Type: Empirical

Research Issue: Responsibility, Transparency, Fairness and Accountability are the four vital pillars for strong Corporate Governance. Corporate Governance helps in establishing a system where a director is showered with duties and responsibilities of the affairs of the Company. This study examined the issue related to Corporate Governance in Automobile Companies listed in BSE Top 100 (Bajaj Auto Ltd., Hero Motocorp Ltd., Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., Maruti Suzuki India Ltd., Tata Motors Ltd.). For this purpose the aim of this study is :

  • To develop Corporate Governance Disclosure Index on the basis of Mandatory and Non-Mandatory requirement issued by SEBI in Revised Clause 49 of Listing Agreement.
  • To determine the Corporate Governance practices in selected companies ( Five Automobiles Companies listed in BSE Top 100 )
  • To make comparative analysis of Corporate Governance practices between the sampled companies.

Research Findings: The study found that the degree of Corporate Governance compliance is fairly good in all sampled companies. All of the firms fulfilled the mandatory requirements in all sub-indices of the Clause 49. Tata Motors Ltd. gained highest score in all selected companies.

Research Suggestions: Whether all selected companies followed Corporate Governance Disclosure Practices as per Clause 49, But to improve market condition , to gain interest of stakeholders and Also to remove corruption and avoid scams, Companies should be followed Corporate Governance in more efficient manner and SEBI should be taken action for any Non-Compliances by companies.

Title: Effectiveness Of Marketing Strategies Of L.I.C. Of India In Distt., Shahjahanpur (U.P.)

Authors: Dr. Krishana Kumar Verma

Page 194-196

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Life insurance business in India occurred during the first two decades of the 20th century. In 1914, there were 44 Life Insurance Companies in the Country and the number increased to 209 by 1948. Despite the progress made by the Indian Companies, the fact remained that life insurance business to be essential a regular phenomenon. The marketing of insurance has some basic features. It has to identify uncertainties in the lives of individual and groups and in the operations of an economic system and offer suitable insurance covers for them. Naturally, the requirements of different groups of insurance seekers will be different. The consumer is no relatively more knowledgeable, may be able to make a more informed choice about financial matters, including insurance protection.

Title: Micro, Small, And Medium Enterprises : An Overview

Authors: Amrita Dhaliwal

Page 197-206

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The purpose of the study is to have a look upon micro small and medium enterprises which is characterized by low investment requirement, operational flexibility, location wise mobility, and import substitution. The Government has been encouraging and supporting the sector through policies for infrastructural support, technology up gradation, preferential access to credit, reservation of products for exclusive manufacture in the sector, preferential purchase policy, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) constitute a large share of enterprises in most countries and are cornerstone of economies. They are major source of employment and income in most countries. The MSMEs lead to entrepreneurial development and diversification of the industrial sector, and also provide depth to industrial base of the economy. More employment opportunities However, they need to be competitive to survive and grow in the present era of liberalized and digital economy, making national boundaries almost irrelevant. Most of the SMEs are inward looking and not very competitive. They merely survive and sooner than later, seize to exist.

Title: Women Empowerment Through Corporate Social Responsibility : The Role Of Selected Companies In India

Authors: Dr. Neha Sharma, Khushboo Sharma

Page 207-213

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This paper attempts to explore socio-economic development of the woman through corporate social responsibility initiatives from selected public and private companies. Corporate social responsibility is mandatory for corporate in India after new company bill passed by the parliament in December 2012 and became first country to mandate a minimum amount spent on CSR activities for social causes. It is a revolutionary effect to involve of the public and private-sector companies to participate in the economic and social development activities of society. Women play a leadership and strategic role for all over development of society but they are surviving under privilege conditions due to discrimination and exploitation. Companies are working the advance activity's model are self-help group's formulation, training, loaning to improve the sanitation and establishment of selfemployment. This is the evaluation of the initiative of selected companies how to participate and impact on their work in woman development. Educational development and economic participations are major contributor to ensure the equal status with man. The present study basically adopts the methodology review of print literature, company website, online general and magazines for collection of information.

Title: Carbon Credits: An Emerging Participant In Revenues Of Indian Companies

Authors: Lokesh Agarwal

Page 214-220

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Carbon credits are a key component of national and international emissions trading schemes that have been implemented to mitigate global warming. They provide a way to reduce greenhouse effect emissions on an industrial scale by capping total annual emissions and letting the market assign a monetary value to any shortfall through trading. Credits can be exchanged between businesses or bought and sold in international markets at the prevailing market price. In India carbon credit decision are taken by Kyoto protocol under united national frame work of climate change (UNFCC).Any fluctuations on population, pollution, iip, etc. will impact on carbon credits. During this analysis I have taken determinants which effects directly or indirectly on stock market returns.

Title: Infrastructure Development: A Step To Bharat Nirman

Authors: Dr. Ragini Sharma

Page 221-226

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India , the fastest growing economies in the world today. To sustain this rapid economic growth we must have a matching and upgraded infrastructure also. For better infrastructure investment plans we need to anticipate the future requirement and capacity and ensure its better implementation. Otherwise the infrastructure becomes inadequate in a few years leading to the same gap as before. For effective investment policies we must target where needed and in a holistic manner. Government’s initiatives, commitment to improve and expand infrastructure in the country is reflected in the investment in infrastructure during twelfth plan. The total investment in infrastructure during twelfth plan is projected at Rs. 5574663 crore as compared to Rs. 2424277 crore during eleventh plan (at 2011-12 prices). To maintain the pace with the developing economies of the world, India needs to speed up planning and implementation.

Title: Dividend Announcements & Capital Market Efficiency: A Study Of Selected Nifty Companies

Authors: Prateek Verma

Page 227-236

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Semi Strong form of Efficient Market Hypothesis says that security prices fully reflect all publicly available information in a rapid and unbiased manner so that it is almost impossible for an investor to earn abnormal return by trading on that information. The main objective of the study to analyze the semi strong form efficiency of S & P CNX Nifty with respect to dividend announcement which is an event study methodology. Specifically, the study analyzes the effects of dividend announcement on stock prices on rate of return. The study has been done on secondary data which was published during the previous financial year (2015- 2016). The analysis concludes that the S & P CNX Nifty is efficient with respect to publically available information means dividend announcement does not possess the signaling property

Title: Cause And Effect Relationship Between Future Closing Price, Trading Volume & Open Interest Of Nifty Stock Index Future Contracts

Authors: Kerkar Puja Paresh, Dr. P. Sriram

Page 237-244

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A rise in future closing price, trading volume and open interest indicates that the market is strong and in upward trend. While a fall in price and a rise in trading volume and open interest indicate that the market is weak and downward trend. When all three prices, trading volume and open interest are falling it indicates that the market is strengthening on the other hand, if price is rising but the trading volume and open interest are falling it said that the market is weakening. This paper makes an attempt to study the relationship between future closing prices, trading volume and open interest for Nifty Index near month, next to near month and far month contracts. Open interest is often used to know the trends and flow of money, the relationship between these three often indicates the changeof trend in the futures market. Granger causality test was adopted to assess the cause and effect relation between the variables. Thus the study provides the technicians utilize a three dimensional approach to futures market analysis.

Title: Relooking The Economic Scenario Of Involuntary Displacement: A Picture Of ?Luhajhar? Resettlement Colony

Authors: Damodar Sahoo

Page 245-256

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In displacement process, besides socio-cultural and environmental impact, economic impact addresses all the vicious circle of standard of living in the host village/resettlement colony. It is difficult to assess actual degree and frequency of losses of their asset as they were settled and had mindset to manage their socio-cultural-economic pattern of life and for future planning. Left with all their assets (land and other immoveable properties), people have been displaced forcibly to a host area (Luhajhar resettlement colony) by TISCO for setting up of a Steel Plant, where they are guests with providing contingency compensation, not complete compensation package. Some researchers have thought about the consequences of displacement, but this study tries to relook its impact from the economic point of view.

Title: Financial Performance : A Case Study Of The Surat District Co-Operative Bank Ltd.

Authors: Kishorkumar G. Chapatwala

Page 257-261

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Co-operative banking system is basically an imported concept but it has come to occupy a pivotal and prominent role in the economic liberation of millions of people of our nation. It has emerged as a social and healthy banking institution providing need-based quality banking services essentially to the middle and lower middle classes and the marginalized sections of the society those who consists 75 percent of our country. Co-operative Banks have assisted in boosting the growth rate of Indian economy by providing a fillip to agricultural production in the country by making available cheap and hassle free agricultural finance. A healthy co operative banking system is essential for Indian economy striving to achieve growth and remain stable in competitive global business environment. In this juncture the performance of these institutions has been less than satisfactory and is deteriorating rapidly. On the other hand some institutions doing their services remarkably. With this back ground data have been collected and analyzed the financial performance and operational efficiency of The Surat District Co-operative Bank Ltd.

Title: Ict For Up liftment Of Rural India

Authors: Dr. Krishna K. Verma

Page 262-274

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Over the last twenty years there has been an ICT revolution in the world. It has altered the way of thinking, working and living styles of the people. ICT is an integration of the two technologies - computing technology and communication technology which are used to store, process, transmit, convert and retrieve the data of information. The use of ICT in the rural marketing which has a potential of over 700 million people, has opened up tremendous opportunities for growth and development. Today in the country the majority of consumer spending comes from rural. It is above $ 100 billion. Web will have a great impact on the way rural marketing and would be conducted in the future, yet there has been little research towards exploring the effectiveness of the provision of agriculture-related and rural marketing information in the electronic form. Modern information and communications technologies (ICTs) and web based marketing of agricultural produce hold great promise for the socio-economic development of rural hinterlands in India. The increased application of ICT will lead to effective governance and help in areas like agriculture, health, education, literacy etc. ICT is leading to enhance the quality of life of villagers by the use of e-learning, e-governance, tele-medicine, entertainment and providing the speedy web-based information. In this paper an effort is made to study the relationship between application of ICT and its impact on the development of the rural India and how it is useful to provide different services to rural society in India. For this purpose, few popular agricultural websites in some key areas of information provision maintained by government departments and agencies, private profit-motivated as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are used. The study will also be useful for developing better electronic commerce networks and e-commerce trading platforms for rural marketing.

Title: Women Entrepreneurship Scenario About Women Development : An Overview

Authors: Dr. Arti Jaiswal

Page 275-279

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In process of development will be sustain when deprived section of society be the part of development. In that specially focused on enabling women in economic terms. Women being an important component of our society, how can we expect a prosperous and affluent society if women suffer many disadvantages as compared to men. Empowerment of women is absolutely essential for societal, national and global development. It will enhance both the quality and quantity of human resources available for development.

Title: Make In India : An Expansion Device For Travel And Tourism Industry

Authors: Dr. Priyanka Vyas

Page 280-284

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Tourism widens market, facilitates business and helps flow of growth across countries to encourage extensive employment opportunities and income generation. The government has taken initiatives to enhance tourism consist of grant of export house status to the tourism sector and the income tax exemption as an incentives for promoting private investment, interest subsidy and compact import duty. The hotel and tourism-related industry has been declared as a high priority industry for foreign investment which entails automatic approval of 100% Foreign Direct Investment and simplifying rules regarding the grant of approval to travel agents, tour operators and tourist transport operators. The other important areas that has to be looked upon on which the growth of tourism enabling an effective response to climate change lies in adopting responsible and sustainable practices on both the demand and supply sides of the tourism chain for the factual prospective of tourism . It can be closely interlinked with inclusive growth through sustainable community participation. Sustainable tourism route has been adopted by the Ministry of Tourism as the innovative Rural Tourism Project, by strengthening skilled rural artisan communities through support to capacity building and infrastructure, while laying emphasis on the role of women. Investment in tourist infrastructure adds to economic growth, catalyses generation of income and employment, which in turn, leads to further growth in demand for tourism and stimulates subsequent rounds of investment.

The following points highlight the development of tourism according to the Tourism Satellite Accounting (TSA) research, released by the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) and its strategic partner Oxford Economics in March 2009. India's travel and tourism sector is expected :

  • As a second largest employer in the world by 2019.
  • To grow by 8.2 per cent between 2010 and 2019 and will place India at the third position in the world.
  • Growth in Capital investment will be at 8.8 per cent between 2010 and 2019.
  • To become the fifth fastest growing business travel destination from 2010-2019 with an estimated real growth rate of 7.6 per cent.

In Make in India Campaign, Tourism has been given an especial place by the government as there is a growing recognition of tourism’s involvement in employment and Dr. Priyanka Vyas : Make in India : An Expansion Device for Travel and Tourism Industry 281 economic growth, better infrastructure facilities, alert marketing and promotion efforts, liberalization of air transport, augmentation of online travel portals, rising intra- regional cooperation and more effective public private partnerships are seen as key drivers for tourism in the next decade.

Title: Investment Behavior Of Women Working In Private Educational Institutes

Authors: Vijay Laxmi, Dr. Nardeep Kumar Maheshwary

Page 285-288

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Financial system of our Indian economy comprises of different financial institutions, financial instruments, financial services and financial markets. It offers a wide variety of financial products and services to its investors and potential investors. Growth and development of our economy has empowered women folk to become independent as a result they are doing efforts to use financial resources independently. But, selection of investment avenues differs from person to person. Every individual investor has her own basis and mindset for investing her savings in available options. Various demographic factors, financial awareness influenced their investment behavior.

Title: Foreign Direct Investment: An Overview

Authors: Sakshi Sharma

Page 289-293

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Foreign direct investment is that investment, which is made to serve the business interests of the investor in a company, which is in a different nation distinct from the investor's country of origin. Foreign investment was normally permitted only in high technology industries in priority areas and in export oriented areas. So the inflow of FDI before 1990’s was very low. To fully utilize the country’s immense economic potential, the government launched Economic reforms in 1991. The new government policies are simple, transparent and promote domestic and foreign investment. India’s abundant and diversified natural resources, its sound economic policy, good market condition and high skilled human resources make it a proper destination for FDI. After long years of journey FDI was also introduced in various
sectors and states in India.

Title: Cost Analysis For Decision?Making : An Overview

Authors: Dr. Kiran Rathore

Page 294-300

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The concept of cost analysis and management system has gained much significance due to the expansion and growth of cement industry, increased competition and increase in the information needs of the users. Cost and expenses are different but relative terms. Where ‘cost’ includes the cost of material and labour in addition to expenses, the term ‘expenses’ is widely applied in financial accounts for various types of historical cost. In cost accounting, it is used for costs other than cost of raw material and wages. On making purchases of raw materials, financial accounts keep records of purchases and creditors meticulously but do not keep records of raw materials. The cost accounts keep additional detailed records in respect of each material showing receipts, issues and balance in terms of quantity and value. Thus, detailed records of utilisation in respect of all inputs of material, labour and other services are maintained in the cost department so as to determine cost of sales of each product/job and when the same is compared with the sales, the profit or loss for each product/job is arrived at (as against the total profit revealed by the financial accounts). To supplement data contained in the annual reports, personal discussions were also held with the officials of the cement companies mainly to go deeper in the study and also to clarify certain points which emerged out of the study. In the present study, an effort has been made to review the analysis of cost analysis and management system of cement industry in India.

Title: Investors? Behavior For Tax Saving Schemes Available At Karvy Stock Broking, Bathinda, Punjab

Authors: Dr. Anju Kansal, Vijay Laxmi

Page 301-304

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The returns on tax saving products should have minimum tax. Tax saving schemes sometimes may not give the best returns, but the tax it saves is enough to compensate for the lesser returns. When financial year comes to an end and one must determine where to invest so as to get optimum return and tax benefits. The tax exemption limit varies for individual investors as per the tax slabs. Tax saving products help in reducing tax burden. Even though the primary objective is to save taxes but every investor also expects a good return from our investments. An attempt has been made to analyze the awareness and behavior for various tax saving schemes available at Karvy Stock Broking in Bathinda.

Title: Purchase Behavior Of Consumers Towards Online Retailing In Major Cities Of South India : A Detail Study

Authors: Mahesh Ajmeera

Page 305-315

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Online retailing Business is expected to hit 2900 crores in Indian by Dec 2014. There are many online retailers to provide their services to the Indian online shoppers. Most Consumers are attracted towards purchasing online from sites such as EBay, and many others with sales reaching $I billion. With more India's online shopping registering a phenomenal 100 per cent annual growth, many retail chains and consumer durable companies are joining the Web bandwagon to tap the E-shopping market. There is huge scope for retail ecommerce business in in India. Even traditional retailers like Shoppers Stop, Westside and Pantaloons are looking at the online shopping space for growth. According to industry leaders, portals offering daily deals and discount offers with good delivery services attract the largest number of online shoppers. The companies that provide daily deals or discount offers are doing brisk business. People are looking for value shopping that saves their money as well as time. The customer behavior is changing dramatically. People are not only using the Web to book air tickets and movie tickets but also do not hesitate in placing orders for mobiles, laptops and other consumer electronics and home appliances through sites like The study is conducted to find out the Consumer buying behavior towards online retailing in Major Cities in South India.

Title: Performance Analysis In Ad-Hoc Network

Authors: Dr. Mahesh Kumar, Sushma Shival

Page 316-321

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An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. There are a number of routing protocols developed by researchers. Due to the nature of ad hoc networks, secure routing is an important area of research in developing secured routing protocols. Although researchers have proposed several secure routing protocols, their resistance towards various types of security attacks and efficiency are primary points of concern in implementing these protocols. Hence there is a need for evaluation. Some of the available secure routing protocols and most common attack patterns against ad hoc networks are studied and discussed. These secure ad hoc routing protocols are analysed in their performance. The analysis process is done in two phases. Firstly case studies of common attack patterns are carried on secure routing like denial-of-service attack, tunnelling, spoofing, black hole attack and wormhole attack. And then in second phase selected secure routing protocols are subjected to simulation tests using NS-2 simulation tool by commonly known ad hoc performance metrics: packet delivery ratio, byte overhead, packet overhead, medial latency and average end-to-end delay. Finally observed results for the two phases and scope of future work are discussed.